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... (Lullaby Version) - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005, Ten Years Of Afe (File)


Download ... (Lullaby Version) - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005, Ten Years Of Afe (File)

That being said, this a very enjoyable crank-in-your-car-on-a-summer's-day album. Unlike the slew of current bands peddling re-invigorated Southern rawk - led by the very capably but not particuarly exciting Black Stone Cherry - this isn't a spicing up of the old recipe.

Whilst the intonations of this record - the blues tinged guitar tones, the imagery Ten Years Of Afe (File) reference points in the lyrics - is painted with the vocabulary of the past, the whole thing is contructed on a thoroughly modern foundation, with time signatures more indebted to post-hardcore than Skynrd, and vocals which, whilst not 'screamo', are barked rather than crooned.

Managing to couple anger and melody effectively, this band sounds like bastard offspring of Molly Hatchet and a pit-bull - what really oozes out of the speakers though is not just the songwriting talent on display here, but the passion and Saturday Night At The Bookstore (Live 1980) - Various - The Cool Beans!

Texas Issue Companion CD of the delivery. This band means it. Much more full-throttle than previous outing 'II' inthis intensity is staggering but fails to showcase the full range of the bands palet. The ball-breaking swagger of 'No Good Son' and slashing-scuzz guitar of 'Harvest Moon Hanging' best exhibit the group in mosh-making mode, whilst the thick groove of 'Last Train Coming' has a real swing to its heaviness.

But . (Lullaby Version) - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 not merely indolent rage - the ease with which Maylene switches from the brutal verse of 'Setting Scores By Burning Bridges' to its anthemitcally catchy chorus shows them to have made the most of their musical heritage, and their ability to sound epic in four minutes on 'Step Up I'm On It ' is truly impressive.

It's not all killer though. The stab at sentimentality on 'Listen Close' - The Warmth Of The Sun - Brian Wilson - I Just Wasnt Made For These Times with kitsch 80s chorus harmony - sounds uncharaterisically contrived, and the switch from Neil Young musings to brutal modern metal in 'Oh Lonely Grave' is the one point at which the group's typical welding of old-skool and new falls apart at the seems.

But this is a small price to pay for an album which comes sandwiched between the rootsy beauty of instrumental Ten Years Of Afe (File) End Is Here It is only then that you begin to comprehend the uniqueness with which Clutch present the listener - indeed, they literally present it, the art work for this record is littered with maps, UFOs and a host of arcane symbols.

And yet, for all of this oddness Clutch have managed to balance being utterly unique with being instantly loveable. They have achieved this by ensuring that each song is crafted around the two things that provide the foundation for all great music - an infectious rhythm and irresistable melody. This then is reinventing the wheel for the sake of taking a famliar journey, but one made all the more mezmorizing for the effort.

Just when you thought you couldn't hear another take on largely traditonal blues, you are proved utterly wrong by the cold slap of originality. Clutch's blues-rock is like Govt. Mule or a ZZ Top revelling in their quirkiness whilst being backed by a herd of elephants necessary to carry the weight of their grooves. This is schizophrenic stoner rock captured largely in the juxtaposition of the bands funk with vocalist Neil Fallon's dark vocals and wrapped around with guitars that often boarder on the eerie.

Here is a band unconcerned with trends, airplay or increased record Run With The Hunted - Run With The Hunted. A band who make music for the people who get it.

The small group of devottees worldwide who want to take the journey this album offers. All of their records have been strong, but despite the weight of expectation Clutch somehow manage to exceed it. More stripped back than their last two albums, the band's performance is more forcefull and to the point. Neil Fallon's usual scat-like delivery has been toned down to allow the natural melody and . (Lullaby Version) - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 of his voice shine in all of its richness, and the lyrics on opener 'Motherless Child' are even instantly comprehenisble, almost bordering on blunt.

But the curve-balls soon come thick and fast: '50, Unstoppable Watts', 'The Amazing Kreskin' and 'Freakenomics' all possess the typical Clutch tone without ever veering into the realms of 'stock' - indeed it is only on 'Witchdoctor' that the band approach a by-the-numbers tune.

But ultimately, this is Neil Fallon's record - his preacher-man ability to whip a song into a frenzy most evident on the impossibly chameleon structure of 'Abraham Lincoln'. Pefection made to look improvised. In a musical landscape increasingly grouped and penned in it is refreshing to be presented with something so un-catergorizical as Clutch, and joyous to allow your mind to be opened to their swamp-gravy grooves.

In many respects, this record was the antithesis of the increasigly bloated hair metal that was been coughed out of an ever tired Sunset Strip - raw, under-produced, and bluesy, it was a beautiful counterbalance to the reverb-heavy, production lavished monstrosities that L. A was churning out in its final days before the rise of Grunge. Album opener 'High Wire' featured a riff of gargantually-serpentine proportions that equals anything Jimmy Page ever penned, Lee's blues-hysterionics battling with Gillan's soaring vocals for the listener's attention.

The blues dominates the record, with the frosty-kiss of 'Winter's Call' Zeppelinization of the power ballad, and 12 Bar explosion of 'Rumblin Train', which . (Lullaby Version) - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 Lee's showcase. Gillan returned the favour on the haunting epic of closer 'Seasons' his voice spinning from low, tender croon to testosterone wail, marking the song out as a stamp of sincere anguish in a sea of Ten Years Of Afe (File) sentimentality populated by the rest of L.

A at the tail end of the '80s. Indeed single 'Dreams In The Dark' is the only glaring sign of the times here, whilst 'Dancing On The Edge' and 'Hard Driver' keep up the Ten Years Of Afe (File) rawk angle that the likes of Raging Slab would up and run with in subsequent years, with 'Devil's Stomp' was the kind of hulk of a song beyond the hairspray and lip gloss of the likes of Pretty Boy Floyd and Slaughter.

This was the high point for Badlands, who never reached their potential. S a year later meant Ten Years Of Afe (File) Lee, surely one of the most talented guitar players of the decade, was now a gunslinger without a cause. A sad end, but what a beginning! Stonewall Noise Orchestra - Constants In An Ever Changing Universe What a band name, and one that perfectly fits the sound of a group who melt together the astro-jams of early Monster Magnet with the sonic boom of Rage Against The Machine in an album that balances the power and beauty that makes heavy music sublime.

Heavy bass driven riffs cascaded by vocals with the tint of Chris Cornell roll out of the speakers to drive a band whose sound is truly biblical in proportions, most readily demonstrated on 'Skyscraper Moment' and 'Dedications'. All of your favourite 70s rock bands are in the mix here and forced through a blender of Kyuss and Queens of the Stone Age with Ten Years Of Afe (File) excessive meanderings of latter noticeable absent.

This is a band that manages to handle an impressive range - 'Hollow Parade' sways like a latino stripper during happy hour, whilst 'Dedications' manages to cement bombast to creepy in the way that Warrior Soul did during the early 90s - without ever losing the sense of purpose that makes this feel like a coherent album. The cavenous swagger of 'Clone Baby' climaxes beautifully in a piano refrain, whilst the nitro charge of 'Headlights' and 'Dynamo' take the album to a place that every Sabbath-worshipping band strive to find, but rarely Ten Years Of Afe (File).

No chinks in the armour here - one day they'll write a classic. Wolf - Ravenous From the instant the crescendo of crashing drums and guitars which opens this record kicks in, embellished with the sound of picks sliding down necks, you know exactly what you're dealing with.

Seconds later a burst of duel guitar harmony bursts in and suddenly its all over again. Yes, this is the sort of record that leaves the uninitiated dumbfounded and the converted edified, for what we have here is a bonafide Heavy Metal record. Songs like 'Curse You Salem', 'Love At First Bite' and 'Mr Twisted' "tell me where's your miiiiiiind" only heighten the sense that this is a record from another age delivered by a band which sounds like the .

(Lullaby Version) - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 loved offspring of Accept and Anvil, their buzz-saw guitars chugging behind a wail which sits somewhere between Halford and Udo. The band often thinks that a chorus is simply repeating the same line four times but it doesn't matter, because this isn't about finesse, it's about passion, and Wolf certainly can't be found wanting in that department.

Well, 10 years ago the metal world was wishing it had as his previous outift - Nu Metal one-trick-ponys Coal Chamber - whimpered into oblivion. No-one gave Devildriver a chance, but they have slowly carved a place in the metal community Stopover - Various - Short Science Fiction Collection 19 hard way largely off the back of a fearsome live reputation and the release of sreadily improving studio output.

Devildriver's previous three records have passed from solid to good to verging on great, have they made the maelstrom of an album that's been rattling around in Dez's head all of these years? Opener 'Pray For Villains' encapsulates this record. Like flesh pulled tort over a muscular torso, tight guitars and crunching drums snarl with intent. What separates this band from nearly all other contemporary American Heavy Metal bands is that exude purpose rather than posture, so much so that there is no .

(Lullaby Version) - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 link here - the A grade is all that makes it. Chimera could learn a lot. Devildriver sound like no-one else. Their's is a breed of nitro charged classic metal. The pace slows in the album's middle - the epically un-nerving 'Forgiveness Is a Six Gun' and unholly heavy 'Its In The Cards' - and elsewhere the switch and blast beats of 'Earth Stepped In' - laced with frazzled riffs - ensures that not everything is constructed around double bass patterns.

Devildriver only paint in shades of brutal, but I Remember It Well - Larry Jon Wilson - Let Me Sing My Song To You is often enjected subtely through guitar parts low in the mix to ensure that songs are memorable, and Dez's rhythmic . (Lullaby Version) - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 delivery presents an element of subdued catchiness.

This is an epic record. To join the Ten Years Of Afe (File) the band needs to learn to break up the full throttle blasts. Even a band as heavy as Slayer know that slicing speed next to mid-pace makes things appear heavier by extremes, and Ten Years Of Afe (File) could learn a lot from a more dynamic injection of time signatures within songs rather than between them.

But that's to nit-pick with a near masterstroke. Dez's roof might not be on fire any more, but their's a raging passion withing. The gaunlet has been thrown down - can any US band rise to meet it? From the vaults: Kilgore - In Medias Es Res When this record came out in it was a saving light in a dark time. At that moment 'Nu Metal' was in full flo sic as the baggy pants briggade took over and the metal landscape was populated by whinge-rock or worse, frat-by bruisers who despararely wanted to be in Cypress Hill but chose to detract from the fact I Just Cant Be Happy Today - Derita Sisters - Back To No Future they couldn't rap by creating music that was of an even more flimsy character.

Kilgore were the . (Lullaby Version) - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 of both. And yet they made little impact, and remain criminally forgotten. Even a stalwart of metal subject matter - a critique of organized religion - is treated in a provoking, rather than provocative, manner in 'Never Again', a song which displays a brand of introspection refreshing amidst a sea .

(Lullaby Version) - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 banal invective that has cluttered this topic since the mids. It is this intensity and thoughtfullness which stagger ten years on - a lesson in songwriting. The band delivered smokey vocals over taut, pummeling groove in a sound which owed much to Pantera's sludgey blues . (Lullaby Version) - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 Voivod quirkiness.

But it is the variety which gives this record its strength. Each song is unique yet stamped with a coherent band 'sound', the mark of a great album. And yet for all . (Lullaby Version) - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 individuality, each song sounds like the member of the same family. They only made one record who knows why? If an album this left-of-field came out tommorrow I would wet myself with excitment. By Ten Years Of Afe (File) of contrat, typically dispondent 'Enjoy The Struggle' is wonderfully formulaic, and the band remind the listener that they can pen a hook when they so choose, choosing to lay it over a rumbling bass and jaunty guitar wrapped around a riff that recalls Marilyn Manson's 'Beautiful People'.

Only a band featuring Andy Cairns superglue charisma could get away with being so bleak, Ten Years Of Afe (File) impact most prevalent on 'I Told You I Was Ill' which bridges the chasm between heartwrenchingly emotional and deliciously sardonic with ease.

This record continues the band's late career rejuventation of previous outings 'High Anxiety' and 'One Cure Fits All', although the warmth of the production on those records is curiously absent here and this can be a jarring listen at times.

Many still yearn or the pop sensibilites of 's masterpiece of angst-rock 'Troublegum', but those were different times and Therapy? The bands have always sounded like a collective of broken souls, but whilst in youth their wounds were nursed with anger, Ten Years Of Afe (File) middle age they are bandaged . (Lullaby Version) - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 laments, most hauntingly in the celtic mist which drapes the mournful title track.

This is far from perfect, however. But when it all comes together, as it does on closer 'Bad Excuse For Daylight' you marvel at how gloriously ingloious Therapy? Long may they continue. Bold record. Especially considering when it came out few wanted to hear their Slayer-meets-Pantera-meets-Meshuggah brand of hate-metal, but the slow burn and set backs only served to make L. G the gnarliest pitbull on the block. For the current kings of metal - at least as far as the . (Lullaby Version) - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 variety - this was the beginning proper.

Raw in N.L. - The Notwist - Shrink 'Kill 'em All' kind if way this is nowhere near as sonically impressive as the one-two KO combo of 's 'Sacrament' and this year's 'Wrath', but it is an impressive record on its own merits.

Like many great metal bands, L. G took what was going on in the underground - the likes of Will Haven, Unsane and Meshuggah - and made it more paletalbe without leaving it emaciated. Opener 'Black Label' kicks off with a rolling riff and double bass attack that Fear Factory would be proud of before culminating in a slow crushing riff in the spirit of 'Burn My Eyes' era Machine Head.

The guitars have a blues-kissed tone to them and melody is subtely injected into songs by the maestro work of Mark Morton. On 'A Warning' Obituary-stlye riffing is sped up three gears and laid over and impressively drum beat. Indeed, a death metal heritage shines through this record but it could never be confined to the parameters Ten Years Of Afe (File) that label - crunchier, less concerned with atmospherics, this is more Thriller than Horror movie.

What has always impressed most about L. G is the quantity of the quality, and there is very little fat on these songs. Sections are not drawn out, and the listener struggles to keep up with changes of tempo as riffs are buried beneath riffs in songs so compact they ooze the benefit of a lifetime on the road, an effort that only amplifies their energy by making it seem earned.

This is a long way from perfect though. Randy Blythe was not yet the complete package as a vocalist, often seeming lie a generic cookie-monster. The intonations of 'Wrath' and 'Sacrament' were not yet fully honed. Belfast, Health and Social Care Board. Holmes, Lisa Supporting children and families returning home from care: counting the costs. Luke, N.

Masson, J. London: Ministry of Justice. Looked after children and young people: quality standard. Tha Mexakinz - Burnin Hot / Headz Or Taylz NICE. Rahilly, T.

Scottish Government Guidance to local authorities on the assessment and support for kinship carers of looked after children PDF. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. Scottish Government Getting it right for looked after children and young people: early engagement, early permanence and improving the quality of care PDF. Scottish Government a Children and young people Scotland Act national guidance on part services in relation to children at risk of becoming looked after, etc PDF.

Scottish Government c Children and young people Scotland act guidance on part continuing care. Scottish Government National missing persons framework. Sebba, J. Oxford: Rees Centre. Cardiff: Welsh Government. Welsh Government Making a difference: a guide for the designated person for looked Ten Years Of Afe (File) children in schools PDF. Welsh Government b Explanatory memorandum to: The Special Guardianship Wales Amendment Regulations and code of practice on the exercise of local authority functions in relation to special guardianship orders PDF.

Wilkins, M. If a child or young person needs confidential help and advice direct them to Childline. Calls Ten Years Of Afe (File) are free and children can also contact Childline online or read about living in care on the Childline website. You can also download or order Childline posters and wallet cards.

Read our report about a whole system approach towards achieving emotional wellbeing for looked after children PDF. If you need more specific information, please contact our Information Service. Find out what data can tell . (Lullaby Version) - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 about: the number of children in care, why they are there, their experiences in care and what happens when they leave. Subscribe to our weekly email keeping Shut Up (Album Version) - Various - Dep Verano 2003 Rock up-to-date with all the developments in child protection policy, research, practice and guidance.

Key topics home Safeguarding Ten Years Of Afe (File) child protection Child abuse and neglect For schools and colleges For voluntary and community groups Case reviews. Research and resources home How safe are our children?

Services home Speak out Stay safe Child and family direct services Deliver services in my area Consultancy Information service. Key topics Safeguarding and child protection Child abuse and neglect For schools and colleges For voluntary and community groups Case reviews.

Research and resources How safe are our children? Services Speak out Stay safe Child and family direct services Deliver services in my area Consultancy Information service. Search the site Submit. But in general, looked after children are: living with foster parents living in a residential children's home or living in residential settings like schools or secure units.

There are a variety of reasons why children and young people enter care. The child could be an unaccompanied asylum seeker, with no responsible adult to care for them.

Children's services may have intervened because they felt the child was at significant risk of harm. If this is the case the child is usually the subject of a court-made legal order. Impact of being looked after Looked after children come from a Ten Years Of Afe (File) of different backgrounds . (Lullaby Version) - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 have varied experiences of care. Previous experiences of abuse Children may enter care for all sorts of reasons.

Placement instability and disrupted relationships with caregivers Many children move repeatedly in and out of care, or between placements. Peer violence and abuse Many looked after children have previous experiences of violence, abuse or neglect. Going missing Looked after children are more likely to go missing than their peers. These include: wanting to return home to their family being unhappy or bored in their care placement feeling like they didn't have enough control over their own lives.

Comparisons with other groups of children Research suggests that when looked after children are compared with children in the general population, they tend to have poorer outcomes in a number of areas such as educational attainment and mental and physical health Rahilly and Hendry, Supporting looked after children Providing children in and on the edge of care with the support they need, when they need it, can help them to achieve their potential. Deciding whether a child should enter care Children who come into care are often known to social services for a number of years before action is taken Masson et al, Barcelona - 26 September Limited to hand-numbered copies in Amaray CD safe case with insert.

Eliot Track 10 is not credited on the sleeve, but it's most likely "Miniatura Pt. Recorded between May and June in Zielona Gora. Elliot's poetry "The waste land". This Shut Up (Album Version) - Various - Dep Verano 2003 Rock combine the darkest side of what we can call traditional symphonic industrial style With the addtion of some folkish and liturgical elements from eastern part of Europe, this release presents a very serious and impressive opus in a nihilistic way Artwork and production by Beast of Prey Packaged in a folded 13x18cm poster-like cardboard unfolded 26x36cm within a linen bag with handmade artwork.

Limited to hand-numbered copies. SNST Little War. Omega OVNI Help Me. Alpha Centauris. Part Flight Of The Passing Fancy - Squirrel Nut Zippers - Hot Green Sky.

Old Respons. Mars Water. Omegastar Racing Junon Ceremony. Space Water On Mars Ocean. Jap Astronaut On Jupiter. Venus Guaguanco Pueblo Nuevo - Ray Barretto - On Fire Again / Encendido Otra Vez. Omega Japan Alpha Centauris Hearts And Flowers - Keef Hartley Band* - Halfbreed Far Away Cyclope Monster.

Earth Ondulations. Primordial Soup. Bad Sky. Uranus Animals. Androides Star Pigs Eating. Volcano Walk. Old Robot. Forest Langage. Jupiter Communication. Star War. Ceres Asteroid. For Afe. Die Kleinen Katzen Hell Version. Medito Lentamente. Fertile Drone. Viaggio Di Ritorno Dall'Inferno. Body Bag Flashback. Fosse Giorno. Has To Go.

Wraith Communication Seed. La Bambina Sull'Altalena. Live In Due Acque, Shore Leave. Searching For An Ego. Dawn Of An Era. Naked Time. Living Waters. Day Two. The Reversed Nightmare. Train Sleep. Of Bones Of Girls. L'Adunata Degli Arcieri. Bad Trip 1. Telepathic War Playfield. Extract From "Listen To Topography Of Smoke.

Star Chart. Notturno Inquieto. Presenze Part IIIb. Keep On Dancing. Nowhere Campfire Outtake 1. Nowhere Campfire Outtake 2. Shangai Surprise. Kagbeni: The Lost Variation. Part 5. J Pin. Putonium-Zinc Reperfusion Ear Sacrifice. Ora Siamo Stranieri For Andrea.



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9 Replies to “ ... (Lullaby Version) - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005, Ten Years Of Afe (File) ”

  1. Welcome, Guest.|Rage In Eden |Fate Various |Barcelona - 26 September |Limited to hand-numbered copies in Amaray CD safe case with insert.|Eliot Track 10 is not credited on the sleeve, but it's most likely "Miniatura Pt.|Recorded between May and June in Zielona Gora.|Elliot's poetry "The waste land".|This release combine the darkest side of what we can call traditional symphonic industrial style|With the addtion of some folkish and liturgical elements from eastern part of Europe, this release presents a very serious and impressive opus in a nihilistic way|Artwork and production by Beast of Prey |Packaged in a folded 13x18cm poster-like cardboard unfolded 26x36cm within a linen bag with handmade artwork.|Limited to hand-numbered copies.|Limited to numbered copies in an 8-page A5 sized folder.|The CDr itself has a 3" playable surface but is surrounded by clear plastic to fulfill the size of a standard CD.|The printed label on the CD top is heart-shaped.|Meizter - Succession K.|Meizter - K.|Compayre Artwork By [Layout] — K.|Meizter Notes Six panel digipak packaging.|First copies come with an extra 3" CDr offering 2 additional exclusive tracks.|Tracks 1, 3, 9 and 11 have never been release before.|Tracks 2 and 8 are different versions of yet to be released tracks.|Tracks 4, 5, 6 and 7 comes from various compilation appearance.|Limited edition of hand-numbered copies.|For users only.|Total artists list.|About us.|Do you streaming online music?|Results Archive Total votes: |All materials published on the forum is intended for persons over 18 years.|If you are under 18 years of age you must immediately leave the forum.|Administration of the forum shall not be liable for any consequences.|All links to music and photoes are presented only for fact-finding listening and located not on our server.|All files upload on foreign servers to which the site diemilitarmusik.|Our site is only forum blog on which users upload links to these files which are accessible publicly.|You are obliged to delete all downloaded files after listening and to get legal copy.|Create a free website with uCoz.|Forum moderator: Mekhanizm.|Date: Tu, |Country of origin:.|Date: We,
  2. Facebook Google Twitter.|Password Hide.|Remember me.|I agree to the Terms.|Lost your password?|Please enter your email address.|You will receive a link to create a new password.|Toggle navigation.|Embed Script.|Size px x x x x|In response, Duncan Cartlidge wrote the first edition of this book, to address the changing role of the QS in the twenty-first century.|As we enter the second decade of the twenty-first century, the pressures on the QS profession continue to change and evolve and so this third edition includes new chapters to help students and professionals deal with the new issues they face.|Alongside these new issues, the chapters addressing issues such as procurement, IT, global markets and adding value have been updated to reflect changes in practice since the second edition.|With an emphasis on current practice, you will find this book an indispensable guide as you embark on your career in quantity surveying.|All rights reserved.|No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.|The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made.|What is right or wrong?|What is good or bad?|We face challenging times in our industry.|West striving to engage East, merging and expanding business networks across the globe, seeking out vibrant economies in a time of recession at home, integrating business cultures and challenging our traditional procurement and business ethics.|Sustainable development drivers vary in response to national context, requiring international design team members to identify, measure and manage differing and diverse development outcomes against a backdrop of increasingly integrated, complex legislation and regulation.|In many countries, national sustainability initiatives offer performance branding of new and refurbished buildings, integrating design team activities beyond the comfort of linear RIBA Stages A through L, drawing on the power and convenience of advanced, seamless IT design and engineering tools.|Cost benefit linked to thermal performance, embodied carbon and durability must be considered in the context of life cycles, buildability, maintainability and functionality.|An immediate challenge to the quantity surveying profession internationally is to develop and implement effective processes and tools, which integrate into the building information modelling environment.|This will provide the quantity surveyor with concise, accurate information, at early design stage, allowing well-informed options appraisals against the multitude of design solutions being proposed through complex design and engineering models.|Such an approach will require corporate investment in applied research, professional development and infrastructure, while becoming immersed within an ethos of sustainability across the business.|Francis R.|In addition, they were perceived to add nothing to the construction process, failed to offer services which clients expected as standard and too few had the courage to challenge established thinking.|I have spent the past thirty years or so as a quantity surveyor in private practice, both in the UK and Europe, as well as periods as a lecturer in higher education.|During this time I have witnessed a profession in a relentless search for an identity, from quantity surveyor to building economist, to construction economist, to construction cost adviser, to construction consultant, etc.|I have also witnessed and been proud to be a member of a profession that has always risen to a challenge and has been capable of reinventing itself and leading from the front, whenever the need arose.|The first part of the twenty-first century holds many challenges for the UK construction industry as well as the quantity surveyor, but of all the professions concerned with the procurement of built assets, quantity surveying is the one that has the ability and skill to respond to these challenges.|This book, therefore, is dedicated to the process of transforming the popular perception that, in the cause of self-preservation, the quantity surveyor xiv Preface to First Edition is wedded to a policy of advocating aggressive price-led tendering with all the problems that this brings, to one of a professional who can help deliver high-value capital projects on time and to budget with guaranteed life cycle costs.|In addition, it is hoped that this book will demonstrate beyond any doubt that the quantity surveyor is alive and well, adapting to the demands of construction clients and, what is more, looking forward to a long and productive future.|Nevertheless, there is still a long hill to climb.|In an address to the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors in November , the same Sir John Egan who had called the future of the quantity surveyor into question now, as Chairman of the Egan Strategic Forum for Construction, suggested that the future for Chartered Surveyors in construction was to become process integrators, involving themselves in the process management of construction projects, and that those who clung to traditional working practices faced an uncertain future.|The author would whole-heartedly agree with these sentiments.|In a brave new world where confrontation was a thing of the past and where the RICS tried to deny that quantity surveyors existed at all, clearly there was no need for the profession!|It would seem as if this came as a surprise to everyone, except quantity surveyors!|Ironically, in quantity surveyors are facing a very different challenge to the ones that were predicted in the late s.|Far from being faced with extinction the problem now is a shortage of quantity surveyors that has reached crisis point, particularly in major cities like London.|As a consequence there is now a generation gap in the profession and with the London Olympics on the horizon, as well as buoyant demand in most property sectors, many organisations are offering incentives and high salaries to attract and retain quantity surveying staff.|It would also seem that the RICS has had second thoughts about the future of the quantity surveyor.|A survey carried out by the Royal Bank of Scotland in indicated that quantity surveyors are the best-paid graduate professionals.|For the quantity surveyor, the challenges keep on coming.|In the public sector, the new Consolidated EU Public Procurement Directive due for implementation in now makes sustainability a criterion for contract awards and a whole raft of legislation due in spring has put green issues at the top of the agenda.|Links have now been proved between the market value of a building and its green features and related performance.|Following the accounting scandals of the Enron Corporation in quantity surveyors are being called on to bring back accountability to both the public and private sectors and worldwide expansion of the profession continues with further consolidation and the emergence of large firms moving towards supplying broad business solutions tailored to particular clients and sectors of the market.|Where to next?|Duncan Cartlidge www.|The Preface to the Second Edition of New Aspects of Quantity Practice referred to the increasing interest from both the profession and the construction industry in sustainability and green issues.|It is unsurprising therefore that sustainability has risen to prominence in the industry with many undergraduate and postgraduate programmes now including dedicated modules on sustainable development, and clients, professionals, developers and contractors seeking to establish their green credentials.|Ethics, both personal and business, and professional standards have also risen to prominence.|Although ethics has a long history of research and literature in areas such as medicine, the amount of guidance available for surveyors has been almost non-existent until recently and even now cannot be described as comprehensive.|One thing that has been a common theme throughout the writing of the three editions of this book is that quantity surveyors feel unloved not least by their professional institution, the RICS.|Layered on top of the above is what has been described as the deepest recession since the s, with all the challenges that this brought.|As an architect with urban design interests, he has pioneered the inquiry of urban climate change in warm regions and has taught and consulted on climate and environment-sensitive design, building energy efficiency, thermal comfort, urban air quality and urban transport planning.|He has also worked as a green building consultant LEED certification and has authored over fifty research papers in the areas of climate change in the built environment, building and urban energy efficiency and thermal comfort.|Chapter 1 The story so far Introduction The quantity surveyor has been an integral part of the UK construction industry for around years.|The golden age for quantity surveyors may be thought of as the period between and , when bills of quantities were the preferred basis for tender documentation and the RICS scales of fees were generous and unchallenged.|As described in Chapter 1, this situation was due to change beyond all recognition in the latter stages of the twentieth century as a client-led crusade for value for money and leaner project completion times and procurement strategies placed new demands on the construction industry.|The catalyst of change This chapter examines the root causes of the changes that took place in the United Kingdom construction industry and quantity surveying practice during the latter half of the twentieth century.|It sets the scene for the remaining chapters, which go on to describe how quantity surveyors are adapting to new and emerging markets and responding to client-led demands for added value.|One of the most important new challenges is how the construction industry and its associated professionals rise to the impact of sustainability and green issues.|The construction industry is no stranger to fluctuations in workload, the most recent being the downturn in construction orders following the world financial crisis in after the collapse of some major financial institutions in America left the world on the brink of a sstyle depression.|The housing sector was particularly badly affected and the downturn resulted in an 8.|Certainly, from the perspective of the UK construction industry, this 2 The story so far recessionary phase was the catalyst for many of the changes in working practices and attitudes that have been inherited by those who survived this period and continue to work in the industry.|As described in the following chapters, some of the pressures for change in the UK construction industry and its professions — including quantity surveying — have their origins in history, while others are the product of the rapid transformation in business practices that took place during the last decades of the twentieth century and still continue today.|Perhaps the lessons learned during this period enabled the industry to weather the financial storm more easily than otherwise would have been the case.|This book will therefore examine the background and causes of these changes, and then continue to analyse the consequences and effects on contemporary surveying practice.|Historical overview The year was a watershed for the UK construction industry and its associated professions.|As illustrated in Figure 1.|The main ingredients of this brew, in no particular order, were: Fee competition Globalisation Information technology Client dissatisfaction Added value procurement recession Public private partnerships Heady brew of change — vintage Figure 1.|Changing patterns of workload due to the introduction of fee competition and compulsory competitive tendering.|The emergence of privatisation and public—private partnerships.|The pervasive growth of information technology.|The globalisation of markets and clients.|A fragmented and litigious industry Boom and bust in the UK construction industry has been and will continue to be a fact of life see Figure 1.|The standard forms of contract used by the industry, although heavily criticised by many, provided the impetus if impetus were needed to continue operating in this way.|A survey conducted in the mids by Property Week, a leading property magazine among private sector clients who regularly commissioned new buildings or refurbished existing properties, provided a snapshot of the UK construction industry at that time.|Parallels between the construction industry ethos at the time of this survey and the UK car industry of the s make an interesting comparison.|Austin, Morris, Jaguar, Rolls Royce, Lotus and marques such as the Mini and MG were all household names during the s; today they are all either owned by foreign companies or out of business.|The reasons behind the collapse of car manufacturing were: flawed design, wrong market positioning, unreliability and poor build quality, but importantly to this may be added lack of investment in new technology, and a failure to move with the times and produce what the market i.|Therefore, when the first Datsun cars began to arrive from Japan in the s and were an immediate success, it was no surprise to anyone except the UK car industry.|The British car buyer, after overcoming initial reservations about purchasing a foreign car, discovered a product that had nearly per cent reliability, contained many features as standard that were extras on British-built cars, were delivered on time, and benefited from long warranties.|Instead of producing what they perceived to be the requirements of the British car buyer, Datsun had researched and listened to the needs of the market, seen the failings of the home manufacturers, and then produced a car to meet them.|Not only had the Japanese car industry researched the market fully: it had also invested in plant and machinery to increase build quality and reduce defects in their cars.|In addition, the entire manufacturing process was analysed and a lean supply chain established to ensure the maximum economies of production.|The scale of the improvements achieved in the car industry are impressive, with the time from completed design to launch reduced from The story so far 5 forty to fifteen months, and the supplier defects to five parts per million.|So why by was the UK construction industry staring into the same abyss that the carmakers had faced thirty years earlier?|In order to appreciate the situation that existed in the UK construction industry in the pre period it is necessary to examine the working practices of the UK construction industry, including the role of the contractor and the professions at this time.|First, we will take a look back at recent history, and in particular at the events that took place in Europe in the first part of the nineteenth century and which helped to shape UK practice Goodall, |The UK construction industry — a brief history Prior to the Napoleonic Wars, Britain, in common with its continental neighbours, had a construction industry based on separate trades.|The system works like this.|The Napoleonic Wars, however, brought change and nowhere more so than in Britain — the only large European state that Napoleon failed to cross or occupy.|Paradoxically, the lasting effect which the Napoleonic Wars had on the British construction industry was more profound than on any other national construction industry in Europe.|While it is true that no military action actually took place on British soil, nonetheless the government of the day was obliged to construct barracks to house the huge garrisons of soldiers that were then being transported across the English Channel.|This meant that constructors were given the opportunity and encouragement to innovate and to problem solve — something that was progressively withdrawn from them in the years to come.|When peace was made the Office of Works and Public Buildings, which had been increasingly concerned with the high cost of measurement and fair value procurement, in particular in the construction of Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle, decided enough was enough.|In , separate trades contracting was discontinued for public works in England in favour of contracting in gross.|The following years saw contracting in gross 6 The story so far general contracting rise to dominate, and with this development the role of the builder as an innovator, problem solver and design team member was stifled to the point where contractors operating in the UK system were reduced to simple executors of the works and instructions although in Scotland the separate trades system survived until the early s.|However, history had another twist; in architects decided that they wished to divorce themselves from surveyors and establish the Royal Institute of British Architects RIBA , exclusively for architects.|The grounds for this great schism were that architects wished to distance themselves from surveyors and their perceived obnoxious commercial interest in construction.|The topdown system that characterises so much of British society was stamped on the construction industry.|As with the death of separate trades contracting, the establishment of the RIBA ensured that the UK contractor was once again discouraged from using innovation.|The events of were also responsible for the birth of another UK phenomenon, the quantity surveyor, and for another unique feature of the UK construction industry — post-construction liability.|The ability of a contractor to re-engineer a scheme design in order to produce maximum buildability is a great competitive advantage, particularly on the international scene see Table 1.|A system of project insurance that is already widely available on the Continent is starting to make an appearance in the UK; adopting this, the design and execution teams can safely circumvent their professional indemnity insurance and operate as partners under the protective umbrella of a single policy of insurance, thereby allowing the interface of designers and contractors.|However, back to history.|For the next or so years the UK construction industry continued to develop along the lines outlined above, and consequently by the third quarter of the twentieth century the industry was characterised by powerful professions carrying out work on comparatively generous fee scales, contractors devoid of the capability to analyse and refine design solutions, forms of contract that made the industry one of the most litigious in Europe, and procurement systems based upon competition and selection by lowest price and not value for money.|Some within the industry had serious concerns about procurement routes and documentation, the forms of contract in use leading to excess costs, suboptimal building quality and time delays, and the adversarial and conflict-ridden relationships between the various parties.|A series of government-sponsored reports Simon, ; Emmerson, ; Banwell, attempted to stimulate debate about construction industry practice, but with little effect.|It was not just the UK construction industry that was obsessed with navelgazing during the last quarter of the twentieth century; quantity surveyors had also been busy penning numerous reports into the future prospects for their profession.|The report, The Future Role of the Quantity Surveyor RICS , was the product of a questionnaire sent to all firms in private practice together with a limited number of public sector organisations; sadly, but typically, the survey resulted in a mere 35 per cent response rate.|The report paints a picture of a world where the quantity surveyor was primarily a producer of Bills of Quantities; indeed, the report comes to the conclusion that the distinct competence of the quantity surveyor of the s was measurement — a view, it should be added, still shared by many today.|In addition, competitive single-stage tendering was the norm, as was the practice of receiving most work via the patronage of an architect.|It was a profession where design and construct projects were rare, and quantity surveyors were discouraged from forming multidisciplinary practices and encouraged to adhere to the scale of fee charges.|The report observes that clients were becoming more informed, but there was little advice about how quantity surveyors were to meet this challenge.|A mere twenty-five years later the report, The Challenge for Change, was drafted in a business climate driven by information technology, where quantities generation is a low-cost activity and the client base is demanding that surveyors demonstrate added value.|In particular, medium-sized quantity surveying firms i.|Interestingly, the Challenge of Change report also predicts that the distinction between contracting and professional service organisations will blur, a quantum leap from the s, when chartered surveyors were forced to resign from their institution if they worked for contracting organisations!|Even so there is no room for complacency.|Measuring performance Benchmarking Benchmarking is a generic management technique that is used to compare performance between varieties of strategically important performance criteria.|These criteria can exist between different organisations or within a single organisation provided that the task being compared is a similar process.|It is an external focus on internal activities functions or operations aimed at achieving continuous improvement Leibfried and McNair, |Owing to the diversity of its products and processes, construction is one of the last industries to embrace objective performance measurements.|There is a consensus among industry experts that one of the principal barriers to promoting improvement in construction projects is the lack of appropriate performance measurement and this was referred to also in Chapter 3 in relation to whole life costs calculations.|For continuous improvement to occur it is necessary to have performance measures which check and monitor performance, to verify changes and the effect of improvement actions, to understand the variability of the process, and in general it is necessary to have objective information available in order to make effective decisions.|Despite the late entry of benchmarking to construction this does not diminish the potential benefits that could be derived; however, it gives some indication of the fact that there is still considerable work to be undertaken both to define the areas where benchmarking might be valuable and the methods of measurement.|The current benchmarking and KPI programme in the UK construction industry has been headlined as a way to improve underperformance.|However, despite the production of several sets of KPIs large-scale improvement still remains as elusive as ever.|Why is this?|The Xerox Corporation in America is considered to be the pioneer of benchmarking.|In the late s Xerox realised that it was on the verge of a crisis when Japanese companies were marketing photocopiers cheaper than it cost Xerox to manufacture a similar product.|It is claimed that by benchmarking Xerox against Japanese companies it was able to improve their market position and the company has used the technique ever since to promote continuous improvement.|Yet again, another strong advocate The story so far 9 of benchmarking is the automotive industry, which successfully employed the technique to reduce manufacturing faults.|However, Carr and Winch , while regarding these categories as important suggest that a more useful distinction in terms of methodology is that of output and process benchmarking.|Interestingly, Winch discovered that the results from a benchmarking exercise could sometimes be surprising, as illustrated in Table 1.|The results are surprising because the Channel Tunnel is regularly cited as an example of just how bad the UK construction industry is at delivering prestige projects.|By contrast the Winch benchmarking exercise demonstrated that the Channel Tunnel project faired better than average when measured against a range of performance criteria.|Measuring performance Through the implementation of performance measures what to measure and selection of measuring tools how to measure , an organisation or a market sector communicates to the outside world and to clients the priorities, objectives and values to which the organisation or market sector aspires.|Therefore the selection of appropriate measurement parameters and procedures is very important to the integrity of the system.|It is now important to distinguish between benchmarks and benchmarking.|Since the late s there has been a widespread government-backed campaign to introTable 1.|The objectives of the benchmarking as defined by the Office of Government Commerce are illustrated in Figure 1.|Benchmarks provide an indication of position relative to what is considered optimum practice and hence indicate a goal to be obtained, but while useful for giving a general idea of areas requiring performance improvement, they provide no indication of the mechanisms by which increased performance may be brought about.|Basically it tells us that we are underperforming but it does not give us the basis for the underperformance.|The production of KPIs which has been the focus of construction industry initiatives to date has therefore been concentrated on output benchmarks.|The danger with the current enthusiasm in the construction industry for KPIs is that outputs will be measured and presented but processes will not be improved as the underlining causes will not be understood.|Benchmarking projects have tended to remain as strategic goals at the level of senior management.|Value for money Economy Efficiency Effectiveness Cheaper provision of services Services improves business efficiency Services support the business Encourage economy Higher productivity Improve service delivery Optimize investment in business New ways of working Business strategy aligned to current business needs Lower prices Improved service quality Figure 1.|These are measured at five key stages throughout the lifetime of a project.|The measurement tools range from crude scoring on a 1 to 10 basis to the number of reportable accidents per , employees.|For benchmarking purposes the construction industry is broken down into sectors such as public housing and repair and maintenance.|The British system compared The following studies offer opportunities to directly compare the British system of procurement and project management with that of a European neighbour: France.|The resultant projects offered a unique opportunity to compare project performance in the two countries with a functionally equivalent building, a common design and a single client.|Why was this?|The French contractor re-engineered the project, simplifying the design and taking out unnecessary costs.|This was possible owing to the single point project liability that operates in France.|Under the French contract, the British architect could not object to these contractor-led changes.|Under the JCT contract, professional indemnity considerations meant that the architect refused to allow the British contractor to copy the French changes.|This meant that there was room for manoeuvre as the client-induced variations mounted, whereas the British-run project could only cope by increasing the programme and budget.|Once the project began to run late, work on construction became even less effective as the team had to start working out of sequence around the installation of scanning equipment.|A second comparison in approaches to construction design and procurement was published in by the Building Design Partnership, entitled Learning from French Hospital Design.|Given the massive hospital building programme in the UK, which is planned to continue until at least , the study compared French hospitals with newly built UK hospitals not only from the point of view of design quality but also value for money.|The results of the study are given in Table 1.|Area per bed however is much higher in France, with single bed wards used universally.|The report therefore argues that French bed space outperforms its UK counterparts.|Building service costs in France i.|More ambitious automation and ICT are also used in France.|However, data released by Gardiner and Theobald seem to indicate that recent trends, due in part to the differentials between the British pound and the euro, have seen the gap close.|The design quality of French hospitals is generally high, while in the UK standards achieved recently have been disappointing and have attracted some criticism.|Compared with many European countries, UK construction produces high output costs for customers from low input costs of professional advice, trade labour and materials.|This fact is at the root of the Egan critique, pointing out that the UK has a wasteful system which would cost even more if UK labour rates were equal to those found in Europe.|The waste in the system, ten years-plus from Latham, is still estimated to be around 30 per cent.|They are more likely to buy standard components and systems from regular suppliers with well-developed supply chains, rather than on a project-by-project basis.|Constructional simplicity follows from the French approach with French architects having 14 The story so far little control of details and not appearing to worry too much about door and window details, for example.|In the case of French hospitals, despite the lower cost, the projects contain very sophisticated technology with ICT systems becoming very ambitious.|Therefore a simple cost comparison demonstrates that French hospital out-turn costs are cheaper than in the UK, but what of added value?|Single point project liability insurance protects all the parties involved in both the design and construction process against failures in both design and construction of the works for the duration of the policy.|The current system, where some team members are insured and some are not, results in a tendency to design defensively, caveat all statements and advice with exclusions of liability, and not to seek help from other members of the team — not a recipe for team work.|In the case of a construction management contract, the current approach to latent defect liability can result in the issue of between twenty and thirty collateral warranties, which facilitates the creation of a contractual relationship where one would otherwise not exist in order that the wronged party is then able to sue under contract rather than rely on the tort of negligence.|Therefore, in order to give contractors the power truly to innovate and to use techniques like value engineering see Chapter 6 , there has to be a fundamental change in the approach to liability.|Contract forms could be amended to allow the contractor to modify the technical design prior to construction, with the consulting architects and engineers waiving their rights to interfere.|If this approach is an option, why does the UK construction industry still fail to produce the goods?|The country is currently holding its breath to see whether the stadia and infrastructure to the Olympic Games will be completed on time and to budget.|The principal problems behind the failure of many high-profile projects were no business case, little or no understanding of the needs of the client, and the inability of a contractor to re-engineer the proposals and produce alternatives.|The result: grandiose designs with large price tags and a complete disregard for the need to pay back the cost of the project from revenues generated by the built asset, in this case a sports stadium.|Opponents of the proposal to introduce single-point liability cite additional costs as a negative factor.|As in the French system, technical auditors can be appointed to minimise risk and, some may argue, add value through an independent overview of the project.|Changing patterns of workload The patterns of workload that quantity surveyors had become familiar with were also due to change.|Fee competition and compulsory competitive tendering CCT.|The emergence of a new type of construction client.|Fee competition and compulsory competitive tendering Until the early s, fee competition between professional practices was almost unheard of.|All the professional bodies published scales of fees, and competition was vigorously discouraged on the basis that a client engaging an architect, engineer or surveyor should base his or her judgement on the type of service and not on the level of fees.|However, things were to change with the election of the Conservative government in |The usual procedure was to submit a bid based upon scale of fees minus a percentage.|It has been suggested that during the s fee income from some of the more traditional quantity surveying services was cut by 60 per cent.|Once introduced there was no going back, and soon the private sector began to demand the same reduction in fee scales; within a few years the cosy status quo that had existed and enabled private practices to prosper had gone.|With the introduction of fee competition the average fee for quantity surveying services expressed as a percentage of construction cost over a range of new-build projects was just 1.|Last but by no means least, the relaxation of planning controls, which left the way open for the development of out-of-town shopping centres and business parks.|By the time the hard landing came in , many high street banks with a reputation for prudence found themselves dangerously exposed to high-risk real estate projects.|In France, for example, one bank alone, Credit Lyonnais, was left with 10 billion euros of unsecured loss after property deals on which the bank had lent money collapsed owing to oversupply and a lack in demand; only a piece of creative accountancy and state intervention saved the French bank from insolvency.|In part it was also brought about by greed in the knowledge that property values had historically seldom delivered negative values.|The emergence of a new type of construction client Another vital ingredient in the brew of change was the emergence of a new type of construction client.|Building and civil engineering works have traditionally been commissioned by either public or private sector clients.|The public sector has been a large and important client for the UK construction industry and its professions.|However, during the s the divide between public and private sectors was to blur.|The Conservative government of embarked upon an energetic and extensive campaign for the privatisation of the public sector that culminated in the introduction of the Private Finance Initiative in |Within a comparatively short period there was a shift from a system dominated by the public sector to one where the private sector was growing in importance.|Nevertheless, the privatisation of the traditional public sector resulted in the emergence of major private sector clients such as the British Airports Authority, privatised in , with an appetite for change and innovation.|This new breed of client was, as the RICS had predicted in its report on the future of quantity surveying, becoming more knowledgeable about the construction process, and such clients were not prepared 18 The story so far to sit on their hands while the UK construction industry continued to underperform.|Clients such as Sir John Egan, who in July was appointed Chairman of the Strategic Forum of Construction, became major players in the drive for value for money.|The poor performance of the construction industry in the private sector has already been examined; however, if anything, performance in the public sector paints an even more depressing picture.|So dire has been the experience of some public sector clients — for example, the Ministry of Defence — that new client-driven initiatives for procurement have been introduced.|If supply chain communications were polarised and fragmented in the private sector, then those in the public sector were even more so.|At the extreme end of the spectrum this manifested itself in public sector professionals refusing to accept even a diary, calendar or a modest drink from a contractor in case it was interpreted as an inducement to show bias.|In the cause of appearing to be fair, impartial and prudent with public funds, most public contracts were awarded as a result of competition between a long list of contractors on the basis of the lowest price.|Increase the training that their staff receive in procurement and risk management.|Establish a single point for the construction industry to resolve problems common to a number of departments.|Legislation was passed in , and from 1 April it became the statutory duty of the public sector to obtain best value.|Best value will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 6.|The information technology revolution As measurers and information managers, quantity surveyors have been greatly affected by the information technology revolution.|However, this opening chapter would not be complete without a brief mention of the contribution of IT to the heady brew of change.|To date, mainly individual IT packages have been used or adapted for use by the quantity surveyor — for example, spreadsheets.|The speed of development has been breathtaking.|This then state-ofthe-art system required the quantity surveyor to code each measured item, and on completion the codes were sent to Hastings on the south coast of England, where a team of operators would input the codes, with varying degrees of accuracy, into a mainframe computer.|In recent years architects have made increasing use of computer-aided design CAD in the form of 2D drafting and 3D modelling for the production of project information.|A report by the Construction Industry Computing Association entitled Architectural IT Usage and Training Requirements indicated that in architectural practices with more than six 20 The story so far staff, between 95 and per cent of all those questioned used 2D drafting to produce information.|As mentioned previously, there had been serious concern both in the industry and in government about the public image of UK Construction plc.|The recession had opened the wounds in the construction industry and shown its vulnerability to market pressures.|Between and over 3, construction enterprises became insolvent, taking with them skills that would be badly needed in the future.|The recession merely highlighted what had been apparent for years: the UK construction industry and its professional advisers had to change.|The heady brew of change was now complete, but concerns over whether or not the patient realised the seriousness of the situation still gave grounds for concern.|Response to change In traditional manner, the UK construction industry turned to a report to try to solve its problems.|In Sir Michael Latham, an academic and politician, was tasked to prepare yet another review, this time of the procurement and contractual arrangements in the United Kingdom construction industry.|The construction industry held its breath — was this just another Banwell or Simon to be consigned, after a respectful period, to gather dust on the shelf?|Thankfully not.|The UK construction industry was at the time of publication in such a fragile state that the report could not be ignored.|The story so far 21 This is not to say that it was greeted with open arms by everyone — indeed, the preliminary report, Trust and Money, produced in December , provoked profound disagreement in the industry and allied professions.|Standardisation of design and components, and the integration of design, fabrication and assembly to achieve better buildability and functionality.|The development of transparent systems to measure performance and productivity both within an organisation and with competitors.|The CRINE review was instigated in , with the direct purpose of identifying methods by which to reduce the high costs in the North Sea oil and gas industry.|It involved a group of operators and contractors working together to investigate the cause for such high costs in the industry, and also to produce recommendations to aid the remedy of such.|It was recommended that the operators and contractors work more closely, pooling information and knowledge, to help drive down the increasing costs of hydrocarbon products and 22 The story so far thus indirectly promote partnering and alliancing procurement strategies see Chapter 6.|Could these dramatic statistics be replicated in the construction industry?|It was the start of the client-led crusade for value for money.|In June the Task Force published the report Rethinking Construction DoE, , which was seen as the blueprint for the modernisation of the systems used in the UK construction industry to procure work.|They felt they were not receiving good value for money insofar as construction projects did not meet their functional needs and had high whole-life costs.|They felt that design and construction should be integrated in order to deliver added value.|The story so far 23 As for quantity surveyors, the s ended with perhaps the unkindness cut of all.|This move however was not taken lying down by the profession; disillusioned quantity surveyors threatened the RICS with legal action to reverse the decision and in the Builder Group began to publish a new weekly magazine for quantity surveyors, QS News.|By it appeared that the RICS had had a change of mind, with references to quantity surveyors reappearing on the RICS website and rumours of a restructuring of the faculties.|Ultimately the existing RICS Faculties were organised into seventeen Professional Groups, one of which is the Built Environment Group where quantity surveying and construction now has its home.|So would peace break out between the RICS and its quantity surveying members?|The answer is, unfortunately, no.|In a number of quantity surveying members protested against disenfranchisement and a lowering of entry standards, the latter comment referring to the introduction of a new form of membership AssocRICS to replace the existing TechRICS, an initiative that never really caught the imagination of members.|It is feared by the rebellious members that the entry requirements for AssocTech will lower entry standards.|In addition, the RICS took the decision to leave the Construction Industry Council, thereby eliminating a uniform voice for construction.|Once again, in shades of , quantity surveyors threatened to leave the RICS with claims of being treated as the Cinderellas of the organisation.|Beyond the rhetoric How are the construction industry and the quantity surveyor rising to the challenges outlined above?|When the much-respected quantity surveyors Arthur J.|Willis penned the Foreword to the eighth edition of their famous book Practice and Procedure for the Quantity Surveyor 24 The story so far in , the world was a far less complicated place.|This model was uniformly distributed across small and large practices, the main difference being that the larger practices would tend to get the larger contracts and the smaller practices the smaller contracts.|However, owing to the changes that have taken place not only within the profession and the construction industry but on the larger world stage some of which have been outlined in this chapter , the world of the Willises has, like the British car industry, all but disappeared for ever.|The small practice concentrating on traditional pre- and post-contract services is still alive and healthy.|However, at the other end of the spectrum the larger practices are now relabelled as international consulting organisations and would be unrecognisable to the Willises.|As discussed in the following chapters, modern quantity surveying involves working in increasingly specialised and sectorial markets where skills are being developed in areas including strategic advice in the PFI, partnering, value and supply chain management.|Table 1.|The industry was urged to take a lead from other industries, such as car manufacturing, steel making, food retailing and offshore engineering, as examples of market sectors that had embraced the challenges of rising worldclass standards and invested in and implemented lean production techniques.|Committed leadership.|Focus on the customer.|Integration of process and team around the project.|A quality-driven agenda.|Commitment to people.|The four key projected processes needed to achieve change are: 1.|Partnering the supply chain — development of long-term relationships based upon continuous improvement with a supply chain.|Components and parts — a sustained programme of improvement for the production and the delivery of components.|Focus on the end-product — integration and focusing of the construction process on meeting the needs of the end-user.|Construction process — the elimination of waste.|The seven annual targets capable of being achieved in improving the performance of construction projects are: 1.|To reduce capital costs by 10 per cent.|To reduce construction time by 10 per cent.|To reduce defects by 20 per cent.|To reduce accidents by 20 per cent.|To increase the predictability of projected cost and time estimates by 10 per cent.|To increase productivity by 10 per cent.|To demonstrate whether completed projects have achieved the planned improvements in performance.|To set reliable targets and estimates for future projects based upon past performances.|It has been argued that organisations like the Building Cost Information Service have been providing a benchmarking service for many years through its tender-based index.|In addition, what is now required is a transparent mechanism to enable clients to determine for themselves which professional practice, contractor, subcontractor and so on delivers best value.|Although the above figures appear to reinforce the march of design and build there is anecdotal evidence which suggests that as the recession took hold in clients were reverting to single-stage competitive tendering based on bills of quantities.|One of the main reasons cited for this was the poor quality control associated with design and build.|Another interesting point about Table 1.|By many of the above ingredients of the heady brew had been factored into UK construction practice.|The main reason for this seems to be that everyone concerned in the construction process is familiar with the JCT, in all its forms, and more or less knows what the outcome will be in the event of a contractual dispute between the parties to the contract.|However, the JCT was often blamed for much of the confrontation that has historically been so much a part of everyday life in the construction industry and Latham in his report recommended the use of the NEC.|One of the main differences between NEC and more traditional forms of contract is that the NEC has deliberately been drafted in non-legal language in the present tense, which may be fine for the parties to the contract but Table 1.|The story so far 29 may cause concern to legal advisers who have to interpret its effect.|To date it appears as though the NEC is a step in the right direction for construction.|There are few disputes involving the NEC that have reached the courts and there is no substantive NEC case law, but time will tell whether that continues to be the situation when it becomes more widely adopted.|New challenges As the second edition of New Aspects of Quantity Surveying Practice went to print in , sustainability and green issues were just coming to prominence in the world as a whole and the construction industry in particular.|In June the RICS published a guide entitled Surveying Sustainability which attempted to clarify for the professional the many issues surrounding the topic.|As well as this guide a number of other government publications and targets have been and continue to be issued, which, taken together, make addressing sustainability a must for quantity surveyors.|The argument went that owing to a lack of recognised industry standard a new approach was required: the New Rules of Measurement NRM.|A more detailed discussion of the NRM is given in Chapter 2.|Conclusion There can be no doubt that the pressure for change within the UK construction industry and its professions, including quantity surveying, is unstoppable, and that the volume of initiatives in both the public and private sectors to try to engineer change grows daily.|Traditional manufacturing industries declined while services industries prospered, but throughout this period the construction industry has remained relatively static, with a turnover compared to GDP of 10 per cent.|Perhaps more than any other construction profession, quantity surveying has repeatedly demonstrated the ability to reinvent itself and adapt to change.|In a report was published by the RICS Foundation which came to the conclusion that there was evidence of innovation, especially among the larger practices.|The report was based on a survey of twenty-seven consultants from among the largest in the UK, ranked by the number of chartered quantity surveyors employed.|The story so far Table 1.|What this will mean for construction and the professions is not yet clear, although one thing seems certain: the Private Finance Initiative is to undergo some radical reorganisation and public infrastructure works will have their funding reduced.|The remainder of this book will attempt to review the new opportunities that are presenting themselves to the quantity surveyor in a swiftly changing global construction market.|It is not the object of this book to proclaim the demise of the traditional quantity surveyor practice offering traditional quantity services — these will continue to be in demand — but rather to outline the opportunities that are now available for quantity surveyors to move into a new era offering a range of services and developing new expertise.|Bibliography Agile Construction Initiative |Benchmarking the Government Client.|Stage Two Study.|Auditor General |Modernising Construction.|Banwell, Sir H.|Building Design Partnership |Learning from French Hospital Design.|Building Design Partnership.|QS Strategies , Volumes 1 and 2.|Burnside, K.|CABE |Construction Industry Computing Association |Cook, C.|Building, 29 October, p.|CRINE |Cost Reduction Initiative for a New Era.|United Kingdom Offshore Operators Association.|Rethinking Construction.|Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions |Edkins, A.|Emmerson, Sir H.|Financial News |Building, 24 November, p.|Goodall, J.|Hoxley, M.|Value for Money?|RICS Research.|Latham, Sir M.|Constructing the Team.|Leibfried, K.|J and McNair, C.|Benchmarking: A Tool for Continuous Improvement.|Harper Collins.|Lema, N.|Benchmarking performance improvement towards competitive advantage.|Journal of Management of Engineering, 11, 28—|Levene, Sir P.|Construction Procurement by Government.|Labour Market Report.|Pullen, L.|What is best value in construction procurement?|Chartered Surveyor Monthly, February.|Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors |The Future Role of the Quantity Surveyor.|Simon, Sir E.|The Placing and Management of Building Contracts.|Thompson, M.|Chartered Surveyors: The Growth of a Profession.|Willis, A.|Practice and Procedure for the Quantity Surveyor.|Winch, G.|The Channel Tunnel Fixed Link.|For years, quantity surveyors, using a variety of standard methods, have provided quantities and schedules for the industry to calculate estimates, tenders and final accounts.|However, the popularity of measurement was due in the main to the widespread use of bills of quantities, which during the past few years have declined, while other methods of procurement, not dependent on a detailed bill of quantities, have become more popular with clients.|Once a key element of quantity surveying diploma and degree courses, measurement has now been confined to the status of just another module.|The end of the Standard Method of Measurement?|Standard Methods of Measurement of Building Works For nearly a hundred years the Standard Method of Measurement has been the industry model for preparing bills of quantities.|It was an attempt to bring uniformity to the ways by which quantity surveyors measured and priced building works.|The co-ownership of the Standard Method of Measurement will play a key role in the status and adoption of the New Rules of Measurement since, like a married couple getting divorced, the RICS and the BEC traded insults and press releases.|The current, third edition was published in |The two standard methods of measurement described above reflect the different approaches of the two industries, not only in the nature of the work, but also the degree of detail and the estimating conventions used by both sectors.|This in turn reflects the different ways in which building and civil engineering projects are organised and carried out.|Building work comprises many different trades, whereas civil engineering works consists of large quantities of a comparatively small range of items.|For example, when measuring excavation using SMM7 it is necessary to treat excavation, earthwork support and working space as separate items, whereas when using CESMM3 all these items are included in a single unit.|Standard method of measurement for roads and bridges.|Standard method of measurement for industrial engineering construction, which provides measurement principles for the estimating, tendering, contract management and cost control aspects of industrial engineering construction.|RICS international method of measurement.|It is particularly useful when preparing cost plans and giving cost advice.|The code is intended for use in the UK only and includes three core definitions that are used in a variety of situations as noted as follows.|Town planning applications and approvals.|Rating and council tax bands.|Marketing and valuation of industrial buildings, warehouses, department stores.|Valuation of new homes.|Property management — apportionment of service charges.|GIA is the area of a building measured to the internal face of the perimeter walls at each floor level.|Rating shops.|In property management it is used for the apportionment of service charges.|NIA is the usable area within a building measured to the internal face of the perimeter walls at each floor level.|Traditionally, this is a document that is drawn up by both sides of the construction industry, from the client side, the RICS and from the 36 A new approach to measurement contracting side, the Construction Confederation.|It is fair to say that the SMM in all its editions has benefited from a captive market, and royalties from the SMM over the years must have been substantial.|Imagine the outrage therefore at the Construction Confederation when in June the RICS announced that it was going alone and would draw up and publish new Rules of Measurement.|This statement was later clarified as meaning that measurement was taking place, but in a variety of differing formats and conventions.|One of the consequences of changing practice was that the Building Cost Information Service was finding it increasingly difficult to obtain cost data from the industry in a form that was meaningful.|The report was based on a survey of practising consultants and contractors, and was carried out during ; as with most surveys of this nature the response rate was low, with only 20 per cent of consultants and 12 per cent of contractors responding.|The report came to a number of conclusions; it confirmed that measurement still had an important part to play in the procurement of buildings, but perhaps not surprisingly it found that measurement was used by clients, contractors, subcontractors and suppliers in the procurement process in a variety of ways.|Further, the allegation is that the SMM7 is out of date and represents a time when bills of quantities and tender documents were required to be measured in greater detail than is warranted by current procurement practice and therefore a new approach was required.|Volume 2: Construction Quantities and Works Procurement expected |The status of the Rules of Measurement is the same as other RICS guidance notes and, as such, if an allegation of professional negligence is made against a surveyor, a court is likely to take account of the contents of any relevant guidance notes published by the RICS in deciding whether or not the surveyor had acted with reasonable competence.|Some pages in extent, it aims to provide a comprehensive guide to good cost management of construction projects; however, it is Volume 2, dealing with works procurement, or measurement, that has caused a furious reaction from the Construction Confederation, which issued a legal challenge in September on the basis that it will gain no royalties from the sale of the new rules and that they have been drawn up without its input.|The Confederation claimed that the new measurement rules are based on information contained in the previous SMM editions and that there are consequently copyright issues arising from the new publication.|The New Rules of Measurement have been largely produced in agreement with the trade and subcontracting bodies; main contractors have not been consulted.|However, the launch by the RICS of Volume 1 may have been timely, since the Construction Confederation announced that it would be winding up following the statement from the Confederation of British Industry CBI , that it would launch a super-body of twenty-four construction bosses called the Construction Council and would lobby on construction issues.|In addition, it was believed that the SMM7 was UK centric and a more universal approach was now required.|Part 3 explains the purpose and preparation of elemental cost plans.|Part 4 contains tabulated rules of measurement for formal cost plans.|The process is mandatory in central civil government for procurement, IT enabled and construction programmes and projects.|At the time of writing the only section of the new rules to be available is Volume 1; therefore discussion will be confined to this volume.|Volume 2 is now anticipated in Autumn |It presents problems when it comes to cost advice, as it does not reflect the modern-day approach to compiling cost plans and creates difficulties in capturing cost data.|The Building Cost Information Service Standard Form of Cost Analysis SFCA was first produced in when the bill of quantities was king, and was subsequently revised in and and has been the industry norm for the past forty years.|The SFCA is presented in elemental format but in truth it has not really altered its format since its original launch, whereas the industry has move on and changed.|Figure 2.|As someone who has tried to teach cost planning and estimating for the past forty years I am acutely aware that students, as well as practitioners, are often confused as to how estimates and cost plans should be prepared, resulting in the process taking on the air of a black art!|This situation has led to an inconsistent approach, varying from practice to practice, leaving clients a little confused.|It is also believed that the lack of importance of measurement has been reflected in the curriculum of degree courses, resulting in graduates being unable to measure or build up rates, a comment not unknown during the past fifty years or so.|As illustrated in Figure 2.|It shows that the preparation and giving of cost advice is a continuous process, that in an ideal world it becomes more detailed as in turn the information flow becomes more detailed.|In practice it is probable that the various stages will merge and that such a clear-cut process will be difficult to achieve.|Is the project affordable?|The accuracy at this stage is dependent on the quality of the information.|At this stage information is presented to the client as shown in Table 2.|At this stage it should be possible to give a detailed breakdown of cost allocation as shown in Table 2.|The order of cost information and cost plan stages have differing recommended formats see Table 2.|Table 2.|There is an admission that the accuracy of an order of cost estimate is dependent on the quality of the information supplied to the quantity surveyor.|The more information provided, the more reliable the outcome will be and, in cases where little or no information is provided, the quantity surveyor will need to qualify the order of cost estimate accordingly.|Perhaps the most worthwhile feature of the NRM is the attempt to establish a uniform approach to measurement based on the RICS Code of Measuring Practice sixth Edition in which there are three prescribed approaches for preparing building works estimates: 1.|Risk allowance estimate stage 6 Risk is defined as the amount added to the base cost estimate for items that cannot be precisely predicted to arrive at the cost limit.|The inclusion of a risk allowance in an estimate is nothing new; what perhaps is new however is the transparency with which it is dealt with in the NRM.|Clients have traditionally homed into contingency allowances, wanting to know what the sum is for and how it has been calculated.|The rate allowance is not a standard percentage and will vary according to the perceived risk of the project.|Just how happy quantity surveyors will be to be so up front about how much has been included for unforeseen circumstances or risk will have to been seen.|It has always been believed by many in the profession that carefully concealing pockets of money within an estimate for extras or additional expenditure is a core skill.|It is possible that a formal risk assessment should take place, and this would be a good thing, using some sort of risk register.|Obviously, the impact of risk should be revisited on a regular basis as the detail becomes more apparent.|Construction risks; for example, site restrictions, existing services.|Inflation should be expressed as a percentage using either the retail price index, tender price index or the BCIS building cost indices.|This adjustment is of course in addition to any price adjustments made earlier in the process when adapting historic cost analysis data.|In addition, care should be taken not to update previous rates that were based on percentage additions e.|Whether this will be possible remains to be seen; certainly giving tax advice has been a stock in trade for many quantity surveyors for some time, but it really needs specialist, up-to-date information.|In addition, particularly with VAT, the tax position of the parties involved may differ greatly and advice should not be given lightly.|From this point on advice is given by the preparation of formal cost plans 1, 2 and 3.|It is anticipated that for the formal cost plan stages the elemental approach should be used and this should be possible, since the quantity and quality of information available to the quantity surveyor should be constantly increasing.|Wall finishes 2.|Floor finishes 3.|Finishes to walls 1.|Finishes to walls 2.|Raised access floors 1.|Finishes to ceilings 2.|False ceilings 3.|Demountable special ceilings At the formal cost plan stages the NRM recommends that cost advice is given on an elemental format and to this end Part 4 of the NRM contains comprehensive rules for the measurement for building works; tabulated rules of measurement for elemental cost planning, enable quantities to be measured to the nearest whole unit, provided that this available information is sufficiently detailed.|When this is not possible, measurement should be based upon GIFA.|From formal cost plan stage 2 cost checks must be carried out against each pre-established cost target based upon costsignificant elements.|One thing that is clear is that the NRM approach, if followed, appears to be fairly labour intensive, and one problem is that the cost planning stages and procurement document stages will morph so that the final cost plan becomes the basis of obtaining bids.|Over the coming years it will be interesting to learn to what extent the NRM replaces the tried-and-trusted standard methods of measurement not only in the UK but in the overseas market.|Bibliography Badke, E.|Are you measuring up?|Martin, J.|RICS |RICS Books.|During the preparation of previous editions of this book, sustainability and green issues were discussed by few people in the construction industry in the course of day-to-day business.|Sustainability, rather like stress, appears to have crept up on the United Kingdom construction industry over the past twenty years or so.|Yet concerns about climate change and the environment can be traced back several centuries, although it was not until the late s when organisations such as Greenpeace were formed that it attracted public attention.|The Rio Declaration which established the concept of the polluter pays.|One of the major obstacles to the introduction of more sustainable design and construction solutions is the perception that to do so will involve additional costs — typically 10 per cent on capital costs.|In fact the report points out that significant improvements in the sustainability performance of buildings need not be expensive, although it is still true that in order to attain high EcoHomepoint or BREEAM ratings see below for definitions there is the need incur significant up-front investment.|In reality it would appear to mean different things to different people in different parts of the world, depending on local circumstances.|Consequently, there may never be a consensus view on its exact meaning.|In general a sustainable building reduces the impact upon the environmental and social systems that surround it as compared to conventional buildings; that is to say, green buildings use less water and energy, as well as fewer raw materials and other resources.|Why should sustainability concern the quantity surveyor?|In addition, around 40 per cent of total energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are directly attributable to constructing and operating buildings according to Energy Action.|Figure 3.|There is little wonder that the construction industry and its associated materials and manufacturing sectors has been singled out for action in the green debate when the statistics are laid out!|An estimated 25 million tonnes of construction waste end up in landfill without any form of recovery or reuse.|The Zero Waste Scotland policy goal.|The process of getting the minimum whole-life cost and environmental impact is complex, being a three-dimensional problem, as indicated by Figure 3.|Each design option will have associated impacts and costs, and tradeoffs have to be made between apparently unrelated entities e.|What if the budget demands a choice between recycled bricks or passive ventilation?|Firms securing opportunities offered by sustainable products or ways of working.|Enhancing company image and profile in the marketplace by addressing issues relating to corporate and social responsibility.|Many high-profile private developers and landowners are seeking the same or higher standards of sustainability performance from their partners.|Investors are becoming increasingly interested in sustainability and are encouraging property industry partners to do the same.|Marketing: as a selling point to tenants and customers.|Financial: to achieve higher and increased building efficiency.|Increasingly, clients as well as end-users are requesting improved sustainability performance from their buildings, over and above the regulatory requirements arising from changes in the Building Regulations.|However, these tools are largely environmentally biased, and it is important that the wider social and economic dimension of sustainability is also considered- see Chapter 8.|It is strongly recommended that these issues are considered holistically at an early stage in project inception and taken forward in an integrated manner.|Ultimately property professionals have a role and responsibility to ensure that we are maintaining and indeed contributing to increasing the value of client assets and, in what we believe to be an increasingly resource-constrained and climatically challenging future, building sustainably is a pathway to assuring asset value.|The research tried to dispel the widely held view that improving BREEAM ratings is necessarily an expensive exercise and demonstrated that an increase of between one and three BREEAM rating levels can be achieved at an additional cost of up to 2 per cent of capital cost.|The study includes four building types: a house, a naturally ventilated office, an air-conditioned office and a PFI health centre.|In order to establish a level playing field some credits were not accessed as they relate to location of the site.|This was particularly the case with the PFI health centre.|Interestingly, on a baseline cost comparison, only with the PFI project, where the consortia will have to meet the running costs of the building over the concession period, typically thirty years, was there a high percentage of good BREEAM ratings in various locations, with minimal increases in expenditure needed to increase levels to very good or excellent.|Clear communication between the client, design team members and, in particular, the project cost consultants is essential.|Location: building location and site conditions have a major impact upon the costs associated with achieving very good and excellent compliance.|The Building Regulations introduced a tougher energy and environmental section, and these new regulations were mandatory from October |In addition, the Climate Change Bill will result in Scotland having the most ambitious climate change legislation anywhere in the world with a mandatory target of cutting emissions by 80 per cent by |Consequently new energy performance standards for buildings and large existing buildings are required and quantity surveyors must be able to provide cost advice on alternative solutions.|BREEAM measures the environmental performance of buildings by awarding credits for achieving a range of environmental standards and levels of performance.|Each credit is weighted according to its importance and the resulting points are added up to give a total BREEAM score and rating Table 3.|Each category contributes a percentage towards the overall rating The higher the BREEAM rating the more mandatory requirements there are and the progressively harder they become.|They assess the green performance of houses over a number of criteria: Table 3.|Reducing main water consumption.|Reducing the impact of materials use.|Reducing pollutants harmful to the atmosphere.|Improving the indoor environment.|Measurement and costing sustainability As sustainability is a comparatively new topic for most quantity surveyors, measuring and costing green factors can present a challenge.|The elements with the highest maintenance-to-capital-cost ratios are generally those that are included in major refurbishments, mainly the services elements and the fittings.|Conversely external works also has a high ratio because of the constant repletion of fairly small items of work, particularly grass and planted areas, which need constant maintenance at certain times of the year.|Table 3.|These parameters will of course change with different building types and clients.|Sustainable development is a process which enables people to realise their potential and improve their quality of life, both now and in the future, while protecting the environment.|Sustainable development policy should include long-term planning, consideration of impacts beyond the local area regional, national and international impacts and the integration of social, economic and environmental issues.|Procurement is the whole process of acquisition from third parties covering goods, services and capital projects.|The process spans the whole life cycle from initial concept through to the end of the useful life of the asset including disposal or end of the services contract.|It involves looking beyond the traditional economic parameters and making decisions based on the whole life-cycle cost, the associated risks, measures of success and implications for society and the environment.|Making decisions in this way requires setting procurement in the broader strategic context, including value for money, performance management, and corporate and community priorities.|At the design stage the quantity surveyor needs to be aware of the drivers for sustainability and the impact these have upon capital and life cycle costs, as well as the technical requirements of sustainable buildings, so that these are developed into realistic costs and not arbitrary percentage additions.|In advising the client on demolition and enabling works, the surveyor is advised to consider carrying out a pre-demolition audit to maximise material reclamation and reuse and to minimise waste to landfill.|Where the activities relate to CDM Regulations surveyors need to be aware of site waste management plans.|In advising on the cost of the project, sustainability implications of alternative design and construction options need to be understood.|Costing of issues not generally associated with building design is extremely important e.|A site visit can identify issues likely to affect cost, time or method of application, including existing buildings on site including cultural heritage , existing ecological features on site that may need protecting to achieve BREEAM credits, local road layouts that could create traffic congestion and noise, existing watercourses and the implications for storm water control and attenuation, and areas of the site that are liable to flood.|Advising on the likely effect of market conditions can involve looking at the possible level of employment and skills in the area, and the levels of crime that might affect the site.|The project costs at this stage can influence a financial appraisal, and surveyors are advised to ensure that they understand what is to be priced in order to provide a level of accuracy and avoid substantial cost increases at a later date.|In addition to considering the effects of site usage, shape of the building, alternative forms of design, procurement and construction and so on, the surveyor would be expected to be able to proactively advise on the sustainability implications of various low and zero carbon technologies, renewable energy installations and material selections.|The surveyor would also be expected to be able to advise on the cost implications of other sustainability issues, including possible construction waste, levels of local employment and skills, and traffic and transport.|It is important to ensure that variations in sustainability implications are valued and agreed.|Overall responses appeared to show over 40 per cent of those questioned considered green issues to be highly relevant; however, further analysis shows that, not unsurprisingly, the greatest concern is in land professional groups whereas civil engineers, investment managers in the private sector and surveying practices in the private sector were not so concerned.|The two most important barriers which stand out as being of almost equal importance were a lack of knowledge and a lack of expertise 72 per cent and 71 per cent of respondents ; this in turn reflects a lack of training and education in relevant techniques.|How can attitudes in construction and the profession and expertise in sustainable issues be enhanced?|Of course the majority of building stock is existing, and therefore one of the biggest challenges for the construction industry is how to deal with this stock.|For example, approximately one-third of total CO2 emissions is from commercial buildings of which commercial offices are a major contributor.|The actions of both landlords and tenants contribute to building energy performance and in turn the CO2 emissions produced.|The landlord has sole control over the building fabric performance, whereas the tenant is responsible for using the building and controls hours of use, IT equipment and management of the setting of temperatures.|In as part of the IPF Research Programme a group led by Cyril Sweett investigated the cost of making energy-efficient improvements to existing commercial buildings held in investment portfolios.|Commercial buildings are of course not homogeneous, having very different characteristics that influence energy consumption and CO2 emissions.|As illustrated in Table 3.|It is also estimated that this expenditure would be sufficient to achieve an EPC rating of B for buildings that are starting from a baseline rating of D or E.|Similar studies were conducted on two other categories of commercial buildings: supermarkets and industrial warehouses see Table 3.|Items considered but rejected due to the long pay-back period included wind turbines and high-efficiency chiller units.|Retrofit external wall components were also considered and, although this approach improved the comfort and Table 3.|Sustainability and procurement 61 environment for the occupants the costs were considerable; this could be accompanied by a potential loss of usable floor space.|In general terms the quantity surveyor should consider the implications of ethical procurement, which encompasses: 1.|Economic life — based upon physical durability and reliability properties.|Obsolescence — based upon factors other than time or use patterns e.|There have been various attempts to provide practising surveyors with information for WLC calculations.|The accuracy of the cost data.|Principles of life cycle costing i.|Forms of LCC calculations and six methods of economic evaluation with informative examples.|Setting the scope for LCC studies including how to deal with risks and uncertainty.|How LCC forms part of the whole-life costing business investment option appraisal process.|Reporting and analysis techniques.|The ISO will eliminate confusion in the industry and is likely to become the established methodology going forward.|First introduced to the UK construction industry over four decades ago by Dr P.|In addition, building owners with long-term interests in property are starting to demand evidence of the future costs of ownership.|This is of course in addition to the operational and maintenance costs that will have been borne by the consortia over the contract period.|The business operating costs in the above equation include the salaries paid to staff and so on.|Clearly in the long term, this aspect is worthy of close attention by design teams and cost advisers.|Fortunately, these sorts of deals have all but disappeared, with a return to the practice of pre-letting and a very different attitude to whole-life costs.|If a developer trader was developing a building to sell on they would have little concern for the running costs and so on.|A building will have a better chance of attracting better quality tenants, throughout its life, if it has been designed using performance requirements across all asset levels, from facility building , through system heating and 64 Sustainability and procurement cooling , to component air-handling unit , and even subcomponent fans or pumps.|In and around major cities today, it is clear that buildings which attracted good tenants and high rents in the s and early s now tend only to attract secondary or tertiary covenants, in multiple occupancies, leading to lower rents and valuations.|Future cost of operation, maintenance and repairs, including: management costs such as cleaning and energy costs.|Future replacement costs, including loss of revenue due to non-availability.|Future alteration and adaptation costs including loss of revenue to non-availability.|Whole-life appraisers may include whatever they deem to be appropriate — provided they observe consistency in any cross-comparisons.|The timing of the future costs associated with various alternatives must be decided and then, using a number of techniques described below, assess their impact.|Classically, whole-life cost procurement is used to determine whether the choice of, say, a component with a higher initial cost than other like for like alternatives is justified by being offset by reduction of the future costs as listed above.|This situation may occur in new-build or refurbishment projects.|Simple aggregation The basis of whole-life costs is that components or forms of construction that have high initial costs will, over the expected lifespan, prove to be cheaper and hence better value than cheaper alternatives.|This method of appraisal Sustainability and procurement 65 involves adding together, without discounting, the initial capital costs, operational and maintenance costs.|This approach has a place in the marketing brochure and it helps to illustrate the importance of considering all the costs associated with a particular element but has little value in cost forecasting.|A similarly simplistic approach is to evaluate a component on the time required to pay back the investment in a better quality product.|For example, where a number of energy-saving devices are available for lift installations, a choice is made on the basis of which, over the life cycle of the lift say, five or ten years , will pay back the investment the most quickly.|This latter approach does have some merit, particularly in situations where the life cycle of the component is relatively short, and the advances in technology and hence the introduction of a new and more efficient product is likely.|Net present value approach The technique of discounting allows the current prices of materials to be adjusted to take account of the value of money of the life cycle of the product.|Discounting is required to adjust the value of costs, or indeed benefits which occur in different time periods so that they may be assessed at a single point in time.|This technique is widely used in the public and private sectors as well as sectors other than construction.|The choice of the discount rate is critical and can be problematic, as it can alter the outcome of calculation substantially.|However, when faced with this problem, the two golden rules that apply are that the public sector follows the recommendations of the Green Book or Appraisal and Evaluation in Central Government, currently recommending a rate of 3.|In the private sector the rule is to select a rate that reflects the real return currently being achieved on investments.|To help in understanding the discount rate, it may be considered almost as the rate of return required by the investor which includes costs, risks and lost opportunities.|Assuming a discount rate of 3.|Annual equivalent approach This approach is closely aligned to the theory of opportunity costs, i.|This approach may also include the provision of a sinking fund in the calculation in order that the costs of replacement are also taken into account.|Sinking funds should also be considered, namely a fund created for the future cost of dilapidations and renewals.|The sinking fund allowance therefore becomes a further Sustainability and procurement 67 cost to be taken into account during the evaluation process.|Whether this approach is adopted will depend on a number of features including corporate policy, interest rates and so on.|Whole-life costing is not an exact science, since, in addition to the difficulties inherent in future cost planning, there are larger issues at stake.|In addition, whole-life costing requires a different way of thinking about cash, assets and cash flow.|Many organisations are simply not geared up for this adjustment.|The common misconception that a whole-life costed project will always be a project with higher capital costs does not assist this state of affairs.|As building services carry a high proportion of the capital cost of most construction projects, this is of particular importance.|Just as capital and revenue costs are intrinsically linked, so are all the variables in the financial assessment process.|Concentrate on one to the detriment of the others and you are likely to fail.|The lack of available data makes the calculations unreliable.|Clift and Bourke found that despite substantial amounts of research into the development of database structures to take account of performance and WLC there remains a significant absence of standardisation across the construction industry in terms of scope and data available.|Ashworth also points out that the forecasting of building life expectancies is a fundamental prerequisite for whole-life cost calculations, an operation that is fraught with problems.|While to some extent building life relies on the lives of the individual building components, this may be less critical than at first imagined, since the major structural elements, such as the substructure and the frame, usually have a life far beyond those of the replaceable elements.|Clients and users will have theoretical norms of total lifespans but these have often proved to be widely inaccurate in the past.|The increased complexity of construction means that it is far more difficult to predict the whole-life cost of built assets.|There is no comprehensive risk analysis of building components available for practitioners, only a wide range of predictions of estimated lifespans and notes on preventive maintenance.|This is too simplistic; there is a need for costs to be tied to risk including the consequences of component failure.|Buildings that are allowed to fall into disrepair prior to any routine maintenance being carried out will have a different life cycle profile to buildings that are regularly maintained from the outset.|There is no guarantee that the selection of so-called highquality materials will result in low life cycle costs.|There is also a lack of taxation incentive in the form of tax breaks and so on for owners to install energy-efficient systems.|In the short term, and taking into account the effects of discounting the impact upon future expenditure is much less significant in the development appraisal.|Thus, the treatment of uncertainty in information and data is crucial, as uncertainty is endemic to WLC Flanagan et al.|Timing — begin to assess WLC as early as possible in the procurement process.|Disposal strategy — is the asset to be owner occupied, sold or let?|Data can often be inaccurate.|People often believe they have more data than actually exists.|It can be difficult to download data for subsequent analyses and for data sharing by a third party.|There will be huge variation in the data, sometimes for the same item.|Data are often not up to date.|Data input is unreliable: the input should be undertaken by those with a vested interest in getting it right.|Both Kelly and Hunter and Flanagan and Jewel quote the UK Office of Government Commerce which states that it is important to focus on future trends rather than compare costs of the past.|Where historic data are available they may provide misleading information, such as past mistakes in the industry and focusing on lowest price.|Historic data are best used for budget estimates at whole building or elemental levels.|At the point of option appraisal of systems and components it is always preferable to estimate the cost from first principles and only to use historical cost information as a check.|This service has been relaunched as BCIS Building Running Costs Online and is a web-based service for professionals involved in facilities management, maintenance and refurbishment.|A central database is organised in an elemental format allowing comparative analyses to be undertaken, rebased for time and location based upon indices updated monthly.|The service also keeps life expectancy of building components data.|BCIS Running Costs Online has a life cycle costing module that combines the information from the BCIS annual reviews of maintenance and occupancy costs with the data from the biannual occupancy cost plans, allowing users to compare the running costs of different building types.|The output is a spend profile over a period of up to sixty years showing the estimated expenditure for each year of the selected period.|There now follows a simple example, based on the selection of material types, illustrating the net present value and the annual equivalent approaches to whole-life cost procurement Table 3.|This problem is a classic one.|Which material, with widely varying initial and maintenance costs, will deliver the best value for money over the life cycle of the building?|In this example, and supposing a discount rate of 6 per cent, it is assumed that the materials are to be considered for installation in a PFI project, with an anticipated life of twenty-five years.|The calculation is repeated for each material or component under consideration and then a comparison made.|A replacement expenditure profile, excluding cyclical maintenance and energy over a range of elements over a thirty-five-year contract period, is shown in Table 3.|Clearly, the choice of the correct type of material or component would appear to be of critical importance to a client, as future replacement and maintenance costs will have to be met out of future income.|However, in reality theory and practice are often very different.|For example, for many Table 3.|Sustainability and procurement Table 3.|In addition to the net present value and annual equivalent approaches described previously, Williams identified that simple aggregation could sometimes be used effectively when evaluating whole-life costs.|Costs of alternative renewable materials Renewable construction materials are made from plant-derived substances that can be produced repeatedly.|In contrast, most other construction materials are derived from raw materials which we cannot replace: oil, minerals, metals and so on.|Renewable materials are beginning to be introduced into mainstream construction e.|Renewable construction materials require less embodied energy to manufacture, process and transport them to their point of use.|Embodied energy includes energy used in obtaining the raw materials e.|The use of renewable construction materials is not a requirement in building regulations and is not required for ratings to be awarded in the Code for Sustainable Homes.|This may be partially due to the fact that renewable construction materials are still in development in the UK and are not yet widely available for most applications.|For these reasons information on costs associated with renewable materials is not widely available.|Renewable energy schemes Renewable energy is defined as energy flows which are replenished at the same rate as they are used.|Renewable energy may be direct; for example, solar water heating, or indirect; for example, biomass, wind and hydro.|Renewable energy schemes are not without their critics, the most common criticism being the sheer scale of, say, wind farm schemes that will be required to replace conventional power generation.|Another point of contention is that with the extra cost of installation for example, the cost of a large woodchipburning biomass boiler the pay-back period can be considerable, perhaps as much as years-plus; in addition, the extra space required for fuel storage could be considerable.|For example, the fuel demand of a 20,kWh boiler over a heating season equates to 2m3 of kerosene as against 25m3 of woodchips.|In addition, there is the necessity to source fuel from within a twenty-five-mile radius of the boiler in order to maintain a satisfactory carbon footprint.|Against this the running cost of woodchip is substantially below the cost of conventional fuels, perhaps half in terms of cost per kWh.|At the time of writing the cost information biomass installation available to the quantity surveyor is limited.|Perhaps the most widely used applications of renewable energy sources are solar and photovoltaic panels.|Used most often for domestic scale schemes the main limiting factor is the area of panels required to produce energy.|The payback period for solar panels and photovoltaic panels is again considerable and could conceivably be longer than the design life of the project.|Planning consideration may also be an issue.|For many people the most obvious signs of renewable energy schemes are wind turbines and wind farms.|Other considerations are tax allowances and of course the suitability of the site for locating a wind turbine.|Ska ratings Formally launched on 6 November , the Ska rating is an environmental assessment method designed to rate and compare the environmental performance of fit-out projects, initially for office buildings in the UK.|In the case of a BREEAM Offices fit-out assessment, the tool filters out the land use and ecology credits as well as some of the credits relating to the build construction, therefore tailoring it for a fit-out assessment.|However, some of the BREEAM Offices fit-out assessment credits do relate to the building which can be outside the control of the project e.|In addition, the BREEAM fit-out assessment has credits relating to the proximity of the building to public transport nodes Ska rating does not assess this.|At this stage we identify the measures and issues in scope.|This will also set the environmental performance standards for how the project is delivered, in terms of waste and energy in use and so on.|Post-occupancy assessment.|Excluded is reutilization of materials such as rework, regrind or scrap generated in a process and capable of being reclaimed within the same process that generated it.|This includes returns of material from the distribution chain.|The Welsh Assembly government has set a 10 per cent recycled content target in major regeneration projects and Welsh Health Estates applies a KPI and target in health sector procurement.|The Olympic Delivery Authority has adopted minimum standards of at least 20 per cent by value of materials used in the permanent venues, to be from recycled content for London |Material types which are believed to offer higher levels of recycled content are given in Table 3.|The business case for green development There now seems to be a greater awareness that energy-efficient offices, for example, command higher rental prices, have lower vacancy rates and higher market values, relative to otherwise comparable conventional office buildings.|This, along with revenue savings of reduced energy and water as well as expert opinion that suggests higher levels of productivity can be achieved, begins to create a compelling argument for building and refurbishing to higher green standards.|However, despite this, energy-efficient buildings are still in the minority of total building stock.|Comparatively few green buildings have been completed, and of those a high percentage has been in the public sector.|Secure tenants more quickly.|Command higher rents or prices.|Enjoy lower tenant turnover.|Attract grants, subsidies, tax breaks and other inducements.|Improve business productivity for occupants.|Increase productivity especially through day lighting.|Promote enhanced health and well-being.|Produce higher academic achievement.|Induce higher morale in staff.|Enhance image — branding and symbolising values.|A raft of new legislation is now ensuring that the consideration of sustainability for new projects is not merely an option.|If this were not enough the long-awaited revision to Part L of the Building Regulations is also now in force.|The Building Regulations are considered to be one of the most far-reaching pieces of legislation ever to hit the construction industry and will force cuts in carbon emissions from buildings by one million tonnes a year.|Other considerations Off-site construction The benefits of off-site factory production in the construction industry are well documented and include the potential to considerably reduce waste, especially when factory-manufactured elements and components are used extensively.|Technologies used for off-site manufacture and prefabrication range from modern timber and light gauge steel framing systems, tunnel form concrete casting through to modular and volumetric forms of construction, and offer great potential for improvements to the efficiency and effectiveness of UK construction.|Can construction methods that reduce waste be devised through liaison with the contractor and specialist subcontractors?|Have specialist contractors been consulted on how to reduce waste in the supply chain?|Is the design adaptable for a variety of purposes during its lifespan?|Can building elements and components be maintained, upgraded or replaced without creating waste?|Bibliography Dixon, T.|Green Profession?|RICS, London.|Flanagan, R.|Whole Life Appraisal for Construction.|Blackwell, Oxford.|HM government |Strategy for Sustainable Construction.|Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform.|IPF Research |Investment Property Forum.|Kelly, J.|A Framework for Whole Life Costing.|Life Cycle Costing of Sustainable Design.|RICS b.|Renewable Energy.|Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change a.|Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change b.|The Low Carbon Transition Plan.|Williams, B.|Benchmarking of Construction Costs in the Member States.|Wrap, Cyril Sweett |Waste Resources Action Programme.|There were exaggerated predictions from practically every quarter, including government departments, on the ways by which e-commerce and e-construction were going to become all-pervading and revolutionise everything from tendering to project management.|The reality, as described in the following paragraphs, has been somewhat different!|Nevertheless, the perception of e-commerce by constructionrelated organisations and professions is mostly positive, although to date objective measures have been missing to accurately benchmark the spread of e-construction.|There is now a universal consensus that reliable e-commerce metrics are needed to track developments in this area and to understand its impact upon our economies and societies.|Electronic commerce or e-commerce therefore consists of the buying, selling, marketing and servicing of products or services over computer networks.|Over the past few years major corporations have re-engineered their business in terms of the internet and its new culture and capabilities, and construction and surveying have started to follow this trend.|As with any new innovation there are forces that act to drive forward the new ideas as well as those forces that act as inhibitors to progress.|These are illustrated in Figure 4.|E-commerce sprang to public attention in , after the meteoric rise in the value of the so-called dot.|In common with other market sectors, e-construction has had a number of false dawns; for example, at the height of dot.|Just over a year later it was announced that the planned internet portal was to be shelved, due to lack of interest.|Information technology is at the heart of the developing tools and technologies that pool information into databases.|An equally important aspect is looking at the attitudes of the people who need to feed information into and to use the system.|The internet in particular provides a platform for changing relationships among clients, surveyors, contractors and suppliers; open exchange of information is critical in order to harness the best from this virtual marketplace and one of the biggest challenges is creating a culture that encourages and rewards the sharing of information.|Too many people are still starting from the viewpoint that knowledge is power and commercial advantage, and the belief that the more they keep the knowledge to themselves, the more they will be protecting their power and position.|Despite the somewhat slower uptake by the construction industry compared with other sectors, Figure 4.|Why then has e-commerce not become the dominant way of conducting business in the construction sector?|In a survey of the construction industry commissioned by the Construction Products Association in , 83 per cent of those surveyed cited the culture of the industry as the major constraint on the development of e-commerce in construction.
  3. Remember Me?|Last Jump to page: Results 1 to 40 of |Thread: Album Reviews.|Thread Tools Show Printable Version.|Album Reviews Ok, here's a space for you to let rip with your album reviews.|We have some knowledgeable fans on this site, so we should set the standard high.|Albums could new release, old news, hidden gems, or black beauties.|Post your views.|I've posted quite a few reviews at rothfans.|Everyone should feel free to post though, I don't want to claim any ownership in this thread.|Last edited by Seshmeister; at PM.|Hey Jackass!|Thin Lizzy - Still Dangerous: Live at the Tower Theatre Philadelphia There's been a lot of hype around this release, with members of the classic Lizzy lineup claiming that this 'lost' recording is superior to the classic 'Live and Dangerous'.|Well, it isn't.|What hinders this from being a classic, however, is the absence of an electric atmosphere which used to be an essential part of live albums - what made 'No Sleep 'til Hammersmith', 'Metallic KO' and 'If You Want Blood' classics was not just the face melting recordings of their respective bands on fire, but the capturing of the atmosphere in the room at that time - those records ooze personality, and bottle up a moment.|This one doesn't.|Lizzy were an excellent band, and this is a damn fine record of a damn fine performance, but a couple of moves short of a pefect |A much better recording that last year's glorified bootleg of the '75 tour although with a far less interesting track listing , this will be an asset in any fan of 70s hard rock's collection.|Chris Cornell - Scream You know when a toddler become frustrated with a jigsaw and frantically hammers together two pieces that aren't meant to join, ultimately resulting in a final product which resembles the picture on the box in the same creepy yet distant way that a lookalike resembles their celebrity?|Well, that's sort of what's happened here, with Cornell's sombre lyrics and dark tones jarringly out of step with 'producer extraordinaire' Timbaland's up-beat hippoty-hoppety music.|The result is a collage rather than a collaboration, and it falls short of satisfying in every way.|Now, I have no problem with artists experimenting.|Who'd of thought it?|But these songs rule|But for experimentation to work it has to be done with a clear goal in mind, and still has to spring from the same essence that makes that artist great.|In Cornell's case, experimentation with electronic music would have been better executed in a darker mould, a la Nine Inch Nails.|That would have been from the same place as 'Superunknown', 'Badmotorfinger' or that criminally underated 'Euphoria Mornings'.|Here though the hip hop experiment seems contrived.|Cornell singing 'That bitch ain't a part of me' just feels like a man play acting, rather than pouring his soul out; and the meanderings which make up the music on 'Time' and 'Sweet Revenge' feel half-hearted and under-cooked.|It's certainly not the case that there's no plus points here - despite the presence of Justin Timberlake mercifully low in the mix , 'Take Me Alive' is a very interesting tune and the point where the collaboration of Timbaland and Cornell works best.|Highs are painfully few and far between however - along with the mediocre rock-by-numbers of 'Carry On' last time out, it seems that what we are witnessing here is a frightening public midlife crisis.|Cornell still has an outstanding voice, but on the evidence here you'd never know that in the early 90s this man wrote songs by which all subsequent rock music would be judged.|It's a cruel irony that the super-talented often set themselves a bar that they spend the rest of their lives failing to clear.|Listening to this will lead to frantic head shaking, not banging.|Supersuckers - Get It Together "I've been waitin' for a long time honey for the wrong side of the kiss|The Supersuckers make albums that instantly make life's stresses seem like distant problems; a band that manages to be a good time rock n roll band without being entirely dispossable.|This is what The Ramones would have sounded like if they'd been a bunch of good ol' boys, music to fight and fuck to, music that makes you tap your foot, shake your ass and grin the groans away.|Highlights include the punchy rhythm of 'Listen Up', the Lizzy-esque harmony of 'Something Good For You', the comic bravado of 'I'm a Fucking Genius', and the sombre blues of 'What It Takes' and 'Paid', which is good time rock played by those who have lived the bad times and the good.|This is as good as The Supersuckers have sounded in a decade - may be not the heights the reached with 'The Evil Powers of Rock n Roll' or 'The Sacreligious Sounds of the Supersuckers', but a damn good spin nonetheless.|Great songs, clever lyrics and a sense of humour - what more do you want from a rock record?|Cancer Bats - Hail Destroyer Put simply, this is a post-hardcore record that isn't boring.|In times when it seems every band in this genre writes songs that exist purely for the mid-section breakdown, that is a mighty fine achievement, and a refreshing one.|This band don't even have generic on the horizon: the greasy riff to 'Bastard's Waltz' deserves an king sized award; and the unnerving and unhinged fury of 'Sorceress' is about as purely emotional as music can get.|All great music has a sense of melody, and an incessantly attractive rhythm, and this group understands that - unlike so many other bands of this ilk, each song on this record stands unique from the others but all contain the stamp of character that runs throughout the album.|From the classic metal riffery of the title track and 'Lucifer's Rocking Chair', to the old-skool hardcore of 'Harem of Scorpions' and 'Let It Pour' the listener is presented with a melting pot of everything that has been great about extreme music for the past 25 years.|The vocals aren't cookie monster, but are barked with vitriol in a style that's reminiscent of the criminally underated 90s band Strife, and are a perfect vehicle for lyrics which paint in various shades of anger, rage and despair.|Closing with the souring 'Zed's Dead Baby', this is a band that feels it and means it - if they keep putting out discs like this, they may very well become legends.|Not for the faint hearted, but pure catharsis on plastic.|My neck hurts, I'm sweating, and my ears ache, but damn it feels good.|But this ain't death metal.|If you had to label it, 'Anthemic Industrial' would be nearer the mark, the record is stamped with a sonic boom nearer to Strapping Young Lad the Devin Townsend influence is very evident , the sombre despair of early Nine Inch Nails, and the twisted concotion of sounds displayed by Ministry and Misery Loves Co.|The quality of the songs marks this out as much, much more than a whim, the fate of many side projects.|There is so much to love here: the solomn lament of 'No-one Knows', the riff-crushing despair of 'Feed Us', and the frankly schizophrenic opener, 'I'm Going In' are just a few of the highlights.|Throughout, scuzzy guitars are at the forefront of a sound lifted by choral sections and keyboards which compliment rather than overwhelm the grungy sound, amplifying the massive hooks in the choruses to make the songs truly anthemic.|Make no mistake, like Trent Reznor Tagtgren knows how to weld his dark poetry with pop senibilities - these songs stick in your head.|This is quite a unique talent - dark yet uplifting, intense yet catchy.|The Answer - Everyday Demons.|Well, they aren't.|To be great, you have to be looking forward and strive for originality.|The Answer seek to do neither.|On the softmore effort, however, the band have welded all of these influences into a unique stlye that is at once timeless and their own.|The result is a damn fine record which is far more than the sum of its parts.|Fully in the 70s blues-rock mold, but with songs perfectly crafted - there is very little fat here - the majority of songs have every drip of potential squeezed out of them.|Opener 'Demon Eyes' is a full tilt smasher, all hooks, chord progressions and blues riffs asunder; 'Why'd You Change Your Mind' alternates from swamp blues to metallic thunk; 'Too Far Gone' boasts a kick in the teeth riff and climaxes as an epic of bombastful proportions; and 'Walkin' Mat', with its switch-scratch beat, is true sonic shamonry.|At it's best, you'll sit their grinning like a fat kid with a birthday cake.|It's not all killer, however.|The albums' two softer moments display lazziness: 'Pride' is one idea rotated, and 'Comfort Zone' is formlaic and unimaginative - truly out of character here.|But when faced with such energy and sheen it's churlish to focus on negatives.|The real star is singer Cormac Nelson - a soulful screacher who delivers a master class in intonation on 'Too Far Gone' and 'Why'd You Change Your Mind', and croons his way through the quieter moments.|Like all great singers, he projects such character that you want to listen to the tired blues tales of bad men, badder women and wild nights.|That's talent.|One day they might deliver a truly great record - this will more than do in the meantime.|A record to crank in your car all summer.|No question, there will be no competition.|This is a band that can makes epic 2 and a half minute songs - such is their leanness - each one of which takes the listener on a journey that leaves a keenly felt impression.|This is their thrid studio release, and their third eponymous record.|Like earlier records, all of the great parts of punk and hardcore from the past three decades are blended together and smoothed out with the inestimable cool of rock 'n' roll and rolled together into one big clusterfuck - a giant, strangley attractive Frankenstein of a band that make the next 10 records you hear sound frankly irrelevant.|Yes, that good.|The intensity - most keenly displayed on 'Digital Leash' - is staggering, and I had to check a couple that they weren't actually playing this live in the room.|It all starts with the greasy chunk that forms the riff to 'Knifeman', a song which epitimozes the album - for this is an ALBUM, not a collection of songs, there is vision and purpose here - huge chorus, a menacing groove, swagger, balls and metallic sheen all undercut with huge slabs of rumbling bass.|This time the vocals are not all scream and bark, but fall somewhere between croon and shout, warmth and anger.|The precise snap of 'Enemy Mind' is dazzling; 'Six Days a Week' and 'Pleasure Seekers' are anthems of aggressive dispossesion; and 'Ship High in Transit' has an instantly likeable swagger and scowl.|The lyrics defy cliche: told with candidness, each personal tale alternates between edifying and disturbing whilst always been instantly poigniant.|Undoubtedly too angry for some listeners, you have to be in the mood for this band - but when the time is right, by God is it worth it.|Destined never to be a household name, but whose impact will be felt for decades to come.|Just when you thought hardcore couldn't get any more generic, a band produces three records of this calibre.|And you fall for it every time.|You buy into the hype, go to the record store all excited, grab the CD, rush home, put it on the stereo and|You find yourself saying things like 'that bass is really tight', 'ooooo, the snare sounds good there' or - if your really deep in self denial - 'that's like an out-take from Powerage'.|Eventually, however, you give up, and quickly forget about most of the songs on the new album, safe in the knowledge that 'DC will only play one of them on tour before rolling out the same setlist from the last 20 years.|And, for the most part, it's the same this time.|It sets a tone for the rest of this disk, and it is a trap that a lot of older bands fall into once they can no longer pull the trigger - thinking that quantity will be a ready substitute for quality.|Indeed, there are 15 songs here.|We are treated to every average ditty they had on file in what amounts too a gallery of mediocrity: 'Wheels' and 'Skies on Fire' are instantly forgettable, and 'She Likes Rock 'n' Roll' almost laughably falls flat on its face in an attempt to be anthemic.|Indeed, it's only when the band stretch themselves that we get some gems.|Had such boldness been injected into the other tunes, this album would have made for more interesting listening.|The lyrics are as bad as any set the band have produced after Bon's notepad ran dry around 'Flick of the Switch' - most criminal are 'Big Jack', and it's when cringing through this number that you realize just how essential Scott's wit was to this band's heyday.|History has taugh us though that expecting subtlety and tease in latter day DC's lyrics is like waiting for Kevin Costner to make a good movie.|But Brian Jonson is on good form - his range is higher than on any record since 'Razor's Edge' and his unmistakable charisma is present throughout - easily the record's saving grace.|Sadly, the same cannot be said of the guitars, which sound oddly flat.|No-one had a more distinctive tone than Angus, but it's barely present here.|The bluesier tones of 's 'Stiff Upper Lip' are abandoned for a thinner, pastier sound which seems to rob the band of much of their undeniable power.|Criticism must be levelled at knob twiddler Brendan O Brien who seems to do his best work with more introspective, darker bands - when handling out and out rockers, however, he leaves them sounding somewhat emaciated.|And yet, for all of its flaws you can't help but like this record.|That's surely the only reason that they can still sell millions of records after howler after howler of a record.|Any other band couldn't get away with this.|It's like a trip back to a singer who can barely carry a tune the wail on 'Hijak the Night' is laughable , Accept-like riffage that chuggs with all the regularity of an alcoholic during happy hour, duel guitar 'Hey Mom, watch this!|It's all tried and tested, and makes for warm listening, even if on 'Greek Fire' formulaic passes into stale.|Given the sound of the drums, an educated guess would be that this was recorded on a shoe string budget, but it just doesn't matter.|This is the type of band that the unitiated just don't get, the kind of band that are larger-than-life comic book villians.|It doesn't set the world alite, but you can't help but smile and throw the horns.|The second half is a wholly different beast: on songs like 'Ol Girl' the band manages to form its own sound, which stays true that blue-collar metal they so clearly adore, but adds southern groove and flavours - the vibe is looser, and yet more epic.|We are far from generic-town here: 'Heat Feeler' is no cheesy soft moment but an upbeat stoll through Skynrdsville that climaxes as a gargantuan epic.|The Thin Lizzy harmonies add subtely, the lyrics become more adventurous, and the band opens up a little with it's time changes.|It sounds like Maiden jamming with The Hold Steady - all bravado and cool blasted out as the day bleeds into night.|If they have more tunes like this, the future would be promising; if not, well, there's always those devil horns!|Moments of brilliance admist the solid if not spectacular.|This is one of those records.|Album opener 'Oblivion' begins unobstrusively, a slow tingling 'Vol.|But you also notice the differences this time out.|The vocals are cleaner, more audible and higher in the mix, and the unassuming sense of meoldy that this band has always possessed is much more to the forefront - this song's haunting hook is irrepressible.|In typical Mastodon style, wave after wave of music wash over the listener in an experience which is simultaneously claustrophobic and euphoric.|It's a presage of what's to come.|The faster, frantic boom of 'Divination' ups the pace, snarling vocals and serene melodies mixing in a disturbing combination, as huge chorus and psychotic bulldozing riffs compete for the ear's attention.|But it's on 'The Czar' that your jaw really drops.|All 11 minutes of it.|The sombre, brooding, dream-like opening section giving birth to a series of HUGE riffs and drum bombardments - a collage of musical parts which sounds gargantuan, and melodrama of operatic stature.|This is the epic of Maiden powered by the gutteral bass pummeling of early Kyuss.|It's the sheer quantity of the quality that baffles - like '|And Justice For All' Metallica, the songs contain riffs that most bands would give their left nuts for buried amongst other riffs of the same calibre.|This is complex without being overwhelming - the sense of song always being placed before any desire toward acclaim and viruosity.|Closing epic 'The Last Baron' is a myriad of riffs and time changes, the most pedal to the metal song here - snapping into a spasmodic prog-rock masterpiece around the mark, it closes with soaring, macabre guitar lines which complete a truly dazzling 50 minute musical journey.|This band is as much prog as it is metal, as much King Crimson as Iron Maiden.|The most obvious comparison in style would be Neurosis, but Mastodon have far more groove about them.|Some will undoubtedly find Brendon O'Brein's production have robbed the band of some of the 'metal' evidence on previous records 'Leviathon' and 'Blood Mountain': the sound is layered, and much of the guitar crunch and thudding drums is buried - but this record is still as heavy as it is epic.|Not a Friday night party album by any means, like most of the current crop of meta elite - Opeth, Tool, Kylessa, Lamb Of God - this band needs to be digested.|The decision to persevere is a wise one.|If I were a betting man, I'd stake my savings on this record being talked about in lofty tones 20 years from now - and you will still get the warm glowing buzz of reminiscence in your guts when you remember the first time you heard it.|From the Vault: Skid Row - Subhuman Race This record got panned when it came out, largely because it heralded a change in direction to a darker sound and one which largely avoided the hysterionics of earlier releases - what record companies sell as 'mature'.|But it has improved with age to the ears of this listener: the heavier, post-grunge stomp of the meatier material - perfectly characterized on opener 'My Enemy', with its greasy riff and ominous vocal - are complimented with the delicately eerie softer numbers, like agonized lament 'Breakin' Down.|The sound is fuller and bass heavy, adding to the record's brooding quality.|But it's the more melodic moments where the band surprise most - despite being formulaicly soft-heavy-soft-heavy 'Into Another' is beautiful and heartfelt, and Eileen is an alt-kilter melancholic tune unlike anything the band had done before which culminates in a monstrous riff.|It would all end for Bach-era Skid Row after this, and for many 'Subhuman Race' was an odd note for the metallic titans to exit on.|But almost 15 years on the strength of these songs is impressive.|Every home should have one.|Is it any good?|That's all you want to know, right?|Well, it certainly is.|No, but it was never going to be.|It is considerably stronger than the patchy 'Dehumanizer' however, and the quality is more consistent throughout.|It's more personality than craft, however - if any other band were to cut this tune it would sound distinctly average, the holes would be all too clear, but the charisma and black sheen of Sabbath add a charm that you can't teach.|Indeed, at its best on the Neon Knights style numbers like 'Neverwhere' and 'Eat the Cannibals' this record manages to recapture some of unique magic that separated them from Ozzy-era Sabbath: both are pacier and built around rolling-thunder riffs, with 'Eat|What it impresses most is the powerful ease with which Dio soars over the rumbling bass monster behind him.|First single 'Bible Black' also stands out - Iommi's guitar trading off Dio's croon at the opening before opening up into a beast of a song, the sort of epic that metal's bread and butter 25 years ago but which have long since gone from view.|It's not all shots of glory, however.|At times the record plods and needs an injection of dynamism - I can't help thinking that the employment of the more creative Bill Ward on drums would have helped here, some of his ingenuity could have livened up 'Breaking Into Heaven' and 'Rock n Roll Angel', and on some of the songs a little self-editing might have helped - on the slower tunes, less is often more.|But it would be churlish to end on a critical note for finally we are presented with a 'reunion' that has produced new music worth owning.|The band are alive and kicking, and all performances are strong Iommi's riff on 'Follow the Tears' re-defines 'heavy'.|Real close.|Duff McKagan's Loaded - 'Sick'.|A record that borders on the side of solid rather than spectacular, but one which all rockers will undoubtedly enjoy.|At it's beating heart this is a punk rock band - taut guitars, punchy drums and minimalist vocals.|Duff's voice is stella here - he's no long the Ringo that Guns 'N' Roses used to let sing - and is the attitude which drives the band.|The melodies of 'Flatline' could have helped out the 1st Velvet Revolver album greatly, the punk-funk of 'Sleaze Factory' brought a wry grin to the face of this reviewer, and the 70s Brit-punk of 'The Slide' blows out of the speakers, complete with gang backing vocals.|As for the album's softer moments, the alt-rock drawl of 'Mother's Day' works well, but the stab at quirkiness on 'Blind Date Girl' falls on its face.|Ironically, however, the album's biggest shortcoming is its length - there is no need for 13 songs here, and the removal of ABC rock like 'Transluscent' and the cliche-driven AOR of 'IOU' would have left the band going with their A game.|That being said, this a very enjoyable crank-in-your-car-on-a-summer's-day album.|Unlike the slew of current bands peddling re-invigorated Southern rawk - led by the very capably but not particuarly exciting Black Stone Cherry - this isn't a spicing up of the old recipe.|Whilst the intonations of this record - the blues tinged guitar tones, the imagery and reference points in the lyrics - is painted with the vocabulary of the past, the whole thing is contructed on a thoroughly modern foundation, with time signatures more indebted to post-hardcore than Skynrd, and vocals which, whilst not 'screamo', are barked rather than crooned.|Managing to couple anger and melody effectively, this band sounds like bastard offspring of Molly Hatchet and a pit-bull - what really oozes out of the speakers though is not just the songwriting talent on display here, but the passion and sincerity of the delivery.|This band means it.|Much more full-throttle than previous outing 'II' in , this intensity is staggering but fails to showcase the full range of the bands palet.|The ball-breaking swagger of 'No Good Son' and slashing-scuzz guitar of 'Harvest Moon Hanging' best exhibit the group in mosh-making mode, whilst the thick groove of 'Last Train Coming' has a real swing to its heaviness.|But it's not merely indolent rage - the ease with which Maylene switches from the brutal verse of 'Setting Scores By Burning Bridges' to its anthemitcally catchy chorus shows them to have made the most of their musical heritage, and their ability to sound epic in four minutes on 'Step Up I'm On It ' is truly impressive.|It's not all killer though.|The stab at sentimentality on 'Listen Close' - completely with kitsch 80s chorus harmony - sounds uncharaterisically contrived, and the switch from Neil Young musings to brutal modern metal in 'Oh Lonely Grave' is the one point at which the group's typical welding of old-skool and new falls apart at the seems.|But this is a small price to pay for an album which comes sandwiched between the rootsy beauty of instrumental 'The End Is Here|It is only then that you begin to comprehend the uniqueness with which Clutch present the listener - indeed, they literally present it, the art work for this record is littered with maps, UFOs and a host of arcane symbols.|And yet, for all of this oddness Clutch have managed to balance being utterly unique with being instantly loveable.|They have achieved this by ensuring that each song is crafted around the two things that provide the foundation for all great music - an infectious rhythm and irresistable melody.|This then is reinventing the wheel for the sake of taking a famliar journey, but one made all the more mezmorizing for the effort.|Just when you thought you couldn't hear another take on largely traditonal blues, you are proved utterly wrong by the cold slap of originality.|Clutch's blues-rock is like Govt.|Mule or a ZZ Top revelling in their quirkiness whilst being backed by a herd of elephants necessary to carry the weight of their grooves.|This is schizophrenic stoner rock captured largely in the juxtaposition of the bands funk with vocalist Neil Fallon's dark vocals and wrapped around with guitars that often boarder on the eerie.|Here is a band unconcerned with trends, airplay or increased record sales.|A band who make music for the people who get it.|The small group of devottees worldwide who want to take the journey this album offers.|All of their records have been strong, but despite the weight of expectation Clutch somehow manage to exceed it.|More stripped back than their last two albums, the band's performance is more forcefull and to the point.|Neil Fallon's usual scat-like delivery has been toned down to allow the natural melody and tone of his voice shine in all of its richness, and the lyrics on opener 'Motherless Child' are even instantly comprehenisble, almost bordering on blunt.|But the curve-balls soon come thick and fast: '50, Unstoppable Watts', 'The Amazing Kreskin' and 'Freakenomics' all possess the typical Clutch tone without ever veering into the realms of 'stock' - indeed it is only on 'Witchdoctor' that the band approach a by-the-numbers tune.|But ultimately, this is Neil Fallon's record - his preacher-man ability to whip a song into a frenzy most evident on the impossibly chameleon structure of 'Abraham Lincoln'.|Pefection made to look improvised.|In a musical landscape increasingly grouped and penned in it is refreshing to be presented with something so un-catergorizical as Clutch, and joyous to allow your mind to be opened to their swamp-gravy grooves.|In many respects, this record was the antithesis of the increasigly bloated hair metal that was been coughed out of an ever tired Sunset Strip - raw, under-produced, and bluesy, it was a beautiful counterbalance to the reverb-heavy, production lavished monstrosities that L.|A was churning out in its final days before the rise of Grunge.|Album opener 'High Wire' featured a riff of gargantually-serpentine proportions that equals anything Jimmy Page ever penned, Lee's blues-hysterionics battling with Gillan's soaring vocals for the listener's attention.|The blues dominates the record, with the frosty-kiss of 'Winter's Call' Zeppelinization of the power ballad, and 12 Bar explosion of 'Rumblin Train', which was Lee's showcase.|Gillan returned the favour on the haunting epic of closer 'Seasons' his voice spinning from low, tender croon to testosterone wail, marking the song out as a stamp of sincere anguish in a sea of sacarine sentimentality populated by the rest of L.|A at the tail end of the '80s.|Indeed single 'Dreams In The Dark' is the only glaring sign of the times here, whilst 'Dancing On The Edge' and 'Hard Driver' keep up the full-tilt rawk angle that the likes of Raging Slab would up and run with in subsequent years, with 'Devil's Stomp' was the kind of hulk of a song beyond the hairspray and lip gloss of the likes of Pretty Boy Floyd and Slaughter.|This was the high point for Badlands, who never reached their potential.|S a year later meant that Lee, surely one of the most talented guitar players of the decade, was now a gunslinger without a cause.|A sad end, but what a beginning!|Stonewall Noise Orchestra - Constants In An Ever Changing Universe What a band name, and one that perfectly fits the sound of a group who melt together the astro-jams of early Monster Magnet with the sonic boom of Rage Against The Machine in an album that balances the power and beauty that makes heavy music sublime.|Heavy bass driven riffs cascaded by vocals with the tint of Chris Cornell roll out of the speakers to drive a band whose sound is truly biblical in proportions, most readily demonstrated on 'Skyscraper Moment' and 'Dedications'.|All of your favourite 70s rock bands are in the mix here and forced through a blender of Kyuss and Queens of the Stone Age with the excessive meanderings of latter noticeable absent.|This is a band that manages to handle an impressive range - 'Hollow Parade' sways like a latino stripper during happy hour, whilst 'Dedications' manages to cement bombast to creepy in the way that Warrior Soul did during the early 90s - without ever losing the sense of purpose that makes this feel like a coherent album.|The cavenous swagger of 'Clone Baby' climaxes beautifully in a piano refrain, whilst the nitro charge of 'Headlights' and 'Dynamo' take the album to a place that every Sabbath-worshipping band strive to find, but rarely do.|No chinks in the armour here - one day they'll write a classic.|Wolf - Ravenous From the instant the crescendo of crashing drums and guitars which opens this record kicks in, embellished with the sound of picks sliding down necks, you know exactly what you're dealing with.|Seconds later a burst of duel guitar harmony bursts in and suddenly its all over again.|Yes, this is the sort of record that leaves the uninitiated dumbfounded and the converted edified, for what we have here is a bonafide Heavy Metal record.|Songs like 'Curse You Salem', 'Love At First Bite' and 'Mr Twisted' "tell me where's your miiiiiiind" only heighten the sense that this is a record from another age delivered by a band which sounds like the much loved offspring of Accept and Anvil, their buzz-saw guitars chugging behind a wail which sits somewhere between Halford and Udo.|The band often thinks that a chorus is simply repeating the same line four times but it doesn't matter, because this isn't about finesse, it's about passion, and Wolf certainly can't be found wanting in that department.|Well, 10 years ago the metal world was wishing it had as his previous outift - Nu Metal one-trick-ponys Coal Chamber - whimpered into oblivion.|No-one gave Devildriver a chance, but they have slowly carved a place in the metal community the hard way largely off the back of a fearsome live reputation and the release of sreadily improving studio output.|Devildriver's previous three records have passed from solid to good to verging on great, have they made the maelstrom of an album that's been rattling around in Dez's head all of these years?|Opener 'Pray For Villains' encapsulates this record.|Like flesh pulled tort over a muscular torso, tight guitars and crunching drums snarl with intent.|What separates this band from nearly all other contemporary American Heavy Metal bands is that exude purpose rather than posture, so much so that there is no weak link here - the A grade is all that makes it.|Chimera could learn a lot.|Devildriver sound like no-one else.|Their's is a breed of nitro charged classic metal.|The pace slows in the album's middle - the epically un-nerving 'Forgiveness Is a Six Gun' and unholly heavy 'Its In The Cards' - and elsewhere the switch and blast beats of 'Earth Stepped In' - laced with frazzled riffs - ensures that not everything is constructed around double bass patterns.|Devildriver only paint in shades of brutal, but melody is often enjected subtely through guitar parts low in the mix to ensure that songs are memorable, and Dez's rhythmic vocal delivery presents an element of subdued catchiness.|This is an epic record.|To join the Gods the band needs to learn to break up the full throttle blasts.|Even a band as heavy as Slayer know that slicing speed next to mid-pace makes things appear heavier by extremes, and Devildriver could learn a lot from a more dynamic injection of time signatures within songs rather than between them.|But that's to nit-pick with a near masterstroke.|Dez's roof might not be on fire any more, but their's a raging passion withing.|The gaunlet has been thrown down - can any US band rise to meet it?|From the vaults: Kilgore - In Medias Es Res When this record came out in it was a saving light in a dark time.|At that moment 'Nu Metal' was in full flo sic as the baggy pants briggade took over and the metal landscape was populated by whinge-rock or worse, frat-by bruisers who despararely wanted to be in Cypress Hill but chose to detract from the fact thay they couldn't rap by creating music that was of an even more flimsy character.|Kilgore were the antithesis of both.|And yet they made little impact, and remain criminally forgotten.|Even a stalwart of metal subject matter - a critique of organized religion - is treated in a provoking, rather than provocative, manner in 'Never Again', a song which displays a brand of introspection refreshing amidst a sea of banal invective that has cluttered this topic since the mids.|It is this intensity and thoughtfullness which stagger ten years on - a lesson in songwriting.|The band delivered smokey vocals over taut, pummeling groove in a sound which owed much to Pantera's sludgey blues and Voivod quirkiness.|But it is the variety which gives this record its strength.|Each song is unique yet stamped with a coherent band 'sound', the mark of a great album.|And yet for all their individuality, each song sounds like the member of the same family.|They only made one record who knows why?|If an album this left-of-field came out tommorrow I would wet myself with excitment.|By way of contrat, typically dispondent 'Enjoy The Struggle' is wonderfully formulaic, and the band remind the listener that they can pen a hook when they so choose, choosing to lay it over a rumbling bass and jaunty guitar wrapped around a riff that recalls Marilyn Manson's 'Beautiful People'.|Only a band featuring Andy Cairns superglue charisma could get away with being so bleak, his impact most prevalent on 'I Told You I Was Ill' which bridges the chasm between heartwrenchingly emotional and deliciously sardonic with ease.|This record continues the band's late career rejuventation of previous outings 'High Anxiety' and 'One Cure Fits All', although the warmth of the production on those records is curiously absent here and this can be a jarring listen at times.|Many still yearn or the pop sensibilites of 's masterpiece of angst-rock 'Troublegum', but those were different times and Therapy?|The bands have always sounded like a collective of broken souls, but whilst in youth their wounds were nursed with anger, in middle age they are bandaged in laments, most hauntingly in the celtic mist which drapes the mournful title track.|This is far from perfect, however.|But when it all comes together, as it does on closer 'Bad Excuse For Daylight' you marvel at how gloriously ingloious Therapy?|Long may they continue.|Bold record.|Especially considering when it came out few wanted to hear their Slayer-meets-Pantera-meets-Meshuggah brand of hate-metal, but the slow burn and set backs only served to make L.|G the gnarliest pitbull on the block.|For the current kings of metal - at least as far as the anglo-american variety - this was the beginning proper.|Raw in a 'Kill 'em All' kind if way this is nowhere near as sonically impressive as the one-two KO combo of 's 'Sacrament' and this year's 'Wrath', but it is an impressive record on its own merits.|Like many great metal bands, L.|G took what was going on in the underground - the likes of Will Haven, Unsane and Meshuggah - and made it more paletalbe without leaving it emaciated.|Opener 'Black Label' kicks off with a rolling riff and double bass attack that Fear Factory would be proud of before culminating in a slow crushing riff in the spirit of 'Burn My Eyes' era Machine Head.|The guitars have a blues-kissed tone to them and melody is subtely injected into songs by the maestro work of Mark Morton.|On 'A Warning' Obituary-stlye riffing is sped up three gears and laid over and impressively drum beat.|Indeed, a death metal heritage shines through this record but it could never be confined to the parameters of that label - crunchier, less concerned with atmospherics, this is more Thriller than Horror movie.|What has always impressed most about L.|G is the quantity of the quality, and there is very little fat on these songs.|Sections are not drawn out, and the listener struggles to keep up with changes of tempo as riffs are buried beneath riffs in songs so compact they ooze the benefit of a lifetime on the road, an effort that only amplifies their energy by making it seem earned.|This is a long way from perfect though.|Randy Blythe was not yet the complete package as a vocalist, often seeming lie a generic cookie-monster.|The intonations of 'Wrath' and 'Sacrament' were not yet fully honed.|Indeed, the band itself was not the complete synthesis of its influences.|Often the songs seem to say 'here's the hardcore bit', 'here's the Machine Head bit', 'here's the Death Metal section', and the middle section of 'Black Pariah' is almost Meshuggah plagarised.|But on 'Subtle Art of Murder and Persuasion', 'Pariah' and 'Black Dahlia' it is evident that some seeds had already sprouted with mezmerizing effects.|The band have grown to be more comfortable with Morton's natural sense of melody and have learny to take their feet off the gas occaisionally so as not to overwhelm the listener.|This, however, was the genesis - increasingly, it is looking like it may be the conception of a legend.|From the Vaults: Motorhead - Bastards If you wanted to define 'Rock N Roll' for someone who'd never heard it, Motorhead would be the best place to start.|What band better encapsulates the sound, attitude, volume and FTW ethos?|They're the standard bearers.|It's odd then that so much of their catalogue is overlooked, especially that post , but if truth be told in the post-grunge world they've released a slew of strong albums.|Like 's 'Inferno' 'Bastards' was a late career high.|The trademarks are all here - snake-hipped riffs, gravel vocals, witty lyrics and sledgehammer delivery - but the quality is decidely impressive and the record captures the raw energy of the band at its best.|Indeed, this may be the best sounding 'head record since 'Ace Of Spades', and certainly contains the best set of lyrics that Lemmy's ever penned, performd with the understatedly rich tone of his voice in fine form.|Its on 'Lost In Ozone' and 'Devils' where the real rough diamonds are though.|Showing a contemporay sound which remains quintessentially Motorhead, both songs are definitive proof that this band were never one-trick ponys, and that there's much more to Lemmy than birds and booze.|The latter also possess a hell of a hook.|There is a sticking point though.|To their credit, it avoids the melodrama or saccarine sentimentality of Aerosmith's 'Janie's Got a Gun' or Skid Row's 'In a Darkened Room', or the clummsily coy inappropriateness of 'Mr Tinkertrain' - the song is unassuming, heartfelt and clever, and perhaps something this unsettliong is a genuine tribute to Lemmy's skills as a songsmith.|Many, however, will baulk at the subject matter.|To these ears, this deserves to be viewed as one of the best Motorhead records from any-era, and it remains at testament to that band that 30 years in they can still wipe the floor with most of the younger pretenders.|In a bumper year of cutting edge metal releases, this one stands out.|Goatwhore maybe the nearest thing to pure aggression in the metal world.|Featuring former members of Acid Bath, Soilent Green and Crowbar, this band is shot through with extreme metal know-how and an unassuming sense of the heritage which makes the music they so clearly love great.|Tracks like 'The Passing Into The Power of Demons' and 'Lazor, Flesh Devoured' manage to perfectly balance brutal and palatable in a display of metallic might which places this band alongside the best of any modern metal band.|Opener 'Apocalyptic Havoc' alternates between power chords and tight riffage, the guitars tuned with a deadly tinge of blues sludge that reeks of vitriolic intent - this is the sound that Phil Anselmo was aiming for with Superjoint Ritual, but Goatwhore have songs.|Great songs.|What impresses most is the ability to balance their musical virtuoisty with the power that only simplicity can deliver in metal: unlike so many modern death metal bands, dexterity is only displayed when needed.|Thus the title track alterantes between impossibly complex sections which are reminiscnet of vintage Death, and trad metal riffage which injects a blast of rhythm into the complexity, dabbles of harmony and tinges of catchiness making the heaviness memorable.|Similalry, whilst 'The All Destroying' is all blast beats and frenetic riffing, on 'Provoking The Ritual Of Death' the band eschews virtuosity in favour of brutal simplicity, laying down an indecently heavy swamp groove.|Death, thrash, black, hardcore, trad, the band paints with all of these hues to create something utterly beautiful in its darkeness - 'Leckoning Of The Soul Made Godless' for example sounds like the offspring of Mercyful Fate and a pitubull, a slab of chugging guitar mere inches from the face of the listener.|It's raw and its heavy, it's dirty and mean!|What Goatwhore have presented the world with then is a record which was conceived from all of the strength of forty years of metal to deliver a concotion that is wholly their own.|A near perfect slice of heaviness for |Grand Magnus - Grand Magnus People more familiar with Grand Magnus's magnificent 'Iron Will' - a record which encapsulates the past and present of Heavy Metal, deliciously lavished with intricate guitar, deceptively complex song structures, and harmonized vocals - might be surprised by the straighforwardly blunt power of their earlier work.|What separates this band from most Sabbath-worshippers is their commitment to writing songs rather than simply jamming on riffs, switiching from fierceness on 'Legion' to a laidback groove on 'Generator.|Songs like 'Gaunlet' display effortless heaviness and provide a showcase for vocalist JB's raw croon, and 'Coat of Arms' the sort of timeless tune that The Sword would kill to write.|It's far from a complete record, however.|Perseverance, however, yields some black beauties - the Danzig-esque blues of 'Black Hounds of Vengence' provides a taste of the talent here.|A patchy affair, but fans of 'Iron Will' will not be disappointed.|Megadeth - Endgame Dangerous thing hype.|It often raises expectations and forces preconceptions of an album that can only be a disappointment upon first listen.|Much has been spewed about this record being a return to the technical thrash that cemented the Megadeth name in the late 80s.|There is certainly some truth in this - 'This Day We Fight' is performed with breakneck savegry and sounds like it came straight out of , and the crunching rhythms and snapping riffs which colide to make 'Head Crusher' may well deliver the most ferocious piece of music that Dave Mustaine has ever penned.|But if truth be told, this is no Thrash record or retro-Megadeth album.|Most of the material here sounds like beefed-up versions of the mid-paced metal displayed on 'Countdown To Exctinction' and 'Youthanasia' - packed with riffs and laced with some of the finest metal songmanship known to mankind?|But fast?|Not particuarly.|But whilst 'Endgame' is no Thrash record, it is a heavy one.|Monstrously heavy, in fact.|The title track - a dystopian vision of a US populace enslaved by its government sometime in the near future - is everything that makes Megadeth great rolled into one.|Multiple sections welded together by time changes which snap the song around at will, a ranting Mustaine vocal, intermitent solos, and relentless riffing all combine to make an epic wave of sonic battery.|It sounds as fresh now as it did in |Because no one else does it this well.|The frontman is on fine form throughout this disc, delivering his best ever collection of melodic choruses and most focussed display of songwriting since 'Countdown|Much credit must be given here to producer Andy Sneap, who has trimmed the songs down to hone their potency and delivered a powerhouse sound which is much more bass heavy than fans might expect.|Sealed With A Kiss' - a power-ballad eek!|Although unlike anything the band have recorded before, Mustaine's sombre vocal and twisting meloldy are a perfect fit with the album's macrabre vibe.|Ultimately it is this completeness that makes 'Endgame' so invigorating, for what we have here is a BAND - Megadave is officially Megadeth again.|This serves to get the urge to widdle out of their systems, and the solos on the rest of the album always serve to inject energy into songs rather than dominate them.|Brodderick is certainly impressively dexterous, but whether his solos will prove to be that memorable is something which only time will tell.|Unpack the hype, and what we have here still delivers.|Elements of all era's of Megadeth have been rolled into something which is far more than the sum of their parts.|Picking up where 's 'United Abominations' left off, this is Mustaine's past and present, and hopefully a sign of his future.|The Wildhearts - Chutzpah!|I've always thought as The Wildhearts as a British version of Cheap Trick, a band who manage to effortlessly combine outright oddness with instant accessibilty.|No-one else sounds like 'em, but they write songs so good that they feel like old friends the first time you hear them.|This record is a patchy affair, however.|There are certainly plenty of plus points: 'The Jackson Whites' and 'John of Violence' typically combine bombastic rock with viscous melodies to forge a uniquely anthemic sound which is at once quintessential to this band without ever straining near to the territory of by-numbers.|Similary, 'Plastic Jebus' displays Ginger's sardonic humour and talent to pen of killer chorus, whilst 'Tim Smith' and the titletrack err on the band's more metallic side, a maelstrom of furious riffs whirling underneath melodies of almost saccarine sweatness, schizo rock delivered in pop clothing.|The band's decision to allow CJ and Scott to share lead vocals with Ginger often leads to an album whose character feels cluttered, and the attempt to mask this with vocal effects only further steals charisma.|But it is perhaps the fact that this record is so heavily invested in dealing with New York where it was recorded that poses the biggest problem - the band, so wonderfully English, lose something as tourists.|This is not a poor record by any means, and it is typical of a band that continually develops and experiments that it sounds nothing like the majestic metallic thump of previous outing 'Must Be Destroyed' and yet both sound utterly like only The Wildhearts could.|Resplendent with highs but littered with lows.|Pearl Jam - Backspacer There's a point half-way through 'Gonna See My Friend' - the opening track on Pearl Jam's ninth studio record - that you are overcome with sheer glee, an overwhelming sense that they've finally crawled out of their own asses.|With its switch beat, blues licks and pulsating bass this Stones-meets-The-Clash number is everything great about rock 'n' roll wrapped up in an incediary delivery.|It's an opener that makes you feel that Pearl Jam have maintained the momentum garnered by 's eponymous record, an album of full tilt rock in which they finally seemed to achieve their life long ambition of sounding like an even more pissed off version of Crazy Horse.|So 'Backspacer' is a great record then?|It all comes crashing down on track 2, 'Get Some'.|With a verse that sounds oddly like The Killers it is a song which, like most of the other tunes on 'Backspacer', meanders in search of a hook.|We are suddenly back in the territory which marred Pearl Jam's mid 90s work 'No Code' and 'Yield' so terribly - the pathological fear of 'selling out' leading to an abandonment of anything which might make most of their songs memorable.|One gets the sense that this band would like to write the perfect 'Anti-Hit'.|The absence of chorus has the ability to render the most adventurous song here, 'Unthought Known', a perfectly crafted Springsteen-esque arrangment which sounds glacial, into sounding curiously incomplete.|Pearl Jam haven't made a dud.|Far from it, in fact.|But for every moment of rejuvenation, theres one of aimless wandering - the performances are typically raw and powerful, the lyrics typically provocative, but with just a little more polish these songs could pass from good to great.|Pearl Jam have always done things their own way - the weird little ditties interspersed throught 'Vitology', falling out with Ticketmaster, and spending most of the 90s creating music as un-marketable as possible.|But intergrity is often one part admirable, one part frustrating.|Originally Posted by binnie.|Put simply, this is a post-hardcore record that isn't boring.|Cheers WACF.|I'd heard they were great live, but I've never had the pleasure of seeing them.|I've just picked up their debut album but not listened to it yet.|Great reviews Binnie!|Cheers dude!|Glad you likey.|Kick ass Thread, Binnie!|Songs about broken Britain, the angry laments of a younger generation increasingly desperate, disenfranchised and despondant in the face of the world around them.|This is the sound of a furious verve for life turned sour through the restrictions of barriers which they can do nothing about, expressed in lyrics which are both visceral and eloquent.|This is a traditional British punk record.|But it is one which is saturated with the musical inventiveness of a generation of post-hardcore, and consequently 'the vulture', 'the riverbed' or the epic 'crucifucks' deserve to become points of reference for every band working in heavy music.|Imagine Discharge, but with a variety that can only betoken intelligence.|The most important British band working today.|If you've been a fan of metal for five minutes, you've heard Slayer.|They've influenced everybody for a quarter of a century, they've been mercilessly ripped off, and yet nobody sounds quite like 'em.|All the unique parts of the Frankenstein are here: squeaky-slashy duel solos; impossible speed; pariah screamed vocals; lyrics about war, anti-religion and serial killers; and the sheer bluntal heaviness.|It's not great, however.|It's not so much that its any less 'Slaytanic' than any other Slayers records, it's just that much of the material on here is a lot less memorable, criticisms that cannot be levelled at the bands other two records this decade, 's incendiary 'Christ Illusion' and 's later-career high, the criminally underated 'God Hates Us All'.|The Kerry King tracks here sound decidedly rushed and uninspired - having a vibe similar to the 80s hardcore covers record - 'Undisputed Attitude' - tunes like 'Psychopathy Red', 'Unit ', and 'Hate Worldwide' are almost like a Slayer tribute band that has decided to write its own material.|Fast, brutal and heavy, yes, but painfully one-dimensional and almost self-parodic.|It's only when the band step out of its comfort-zone musically - as they did with 'Jihad' on 'Christ Illusion' - that we get the real treats.|The eerie chill of 'Human Strain' is unlike anything they've really done before; the bruised beauty of the melody on 'Beauty Through Order' is biblically epic; and 'Playing With Dolls' is as disturbing as music can be.|Knowing that their fanbase is so unforgiving of anything that moves away from the formula, these are brave choices for Slayer, but they are succesful ones.|Even the title track features an unusually melodic riff in the bridge that takes the song up a level from the relentless chugging riffs we've heard a hundred times before, and it's this song with its muti-parts and time changes which shows that Slayer can still take just about anyone in extreme music.|For this isn't a poor record by anyone's standards other than their own.|There's a lot of talk about a thrash 'revival' - well, on the evidence of this, 'Death Magnetic', and 'Endgame', the old guard are in little need of reviving.|Is it going to be in your top three Slayer albums?|No way.|But is it still belligerant enough to have you playing every air instrument known to mankind?|Yup - so much so your neck will snap.|A feeling that soothes you, and is awakened every time you return to a great album.|Several Alice In Chains albums have managed the seemingly impossible feat of touching countless numbers of human beings with whom the band have never personally interacted - s 'Dirt' changed everything in heavy music, and s 'Unplugged' is - no arguments please - the best album ever to feature that moniker.|For what AIC do is make music which is impossibly melodic and incredibly heavy.|Heavy, not just in a sonic sense, but in an emotional one.|This is a band which always sang about real pain, real longing, a band which wouldn't know 'contrived' if it bit them.|The death of Layne Stayley - the voice of the band - would seem to be a loss then that would prove to be as implossive as removing the keystone from a bridge.|Not so, my friends, not so.|What is amazing about new singer William Duvall is how natural he sounds on this record.|He doesn't try to be Layne, to sound like him or replace him; nor does he make the mistake of many new singers in rock bands and try to make it his show, and to alter the band's sound to suit him.|He just sings the songs.|And, along with Jerry Cantrell, he sings them beautifully - if Layne is missed at any point here its only on the acoustic 'Your Decision' in which Cantrell's lead vocals seem to be missing the ying to their yang.|This is a startling record.|It's all there from opener 'All Secrets Known': the hauntingly dark melodies, huge riffs, slow, brooding bass undercurrent and the band's effortless twist from loose verse to tight chorus, a trick repeated on the melodic rumble of 'Acid Bubble'.|It's gut-wrenchingly moving stuff: if the title track - Cantrell's hymn to Layne's final days - doesn't touch you then you must be dead inside.|Sure 'A Looking In View' may be a little complicated and over-long, but you can forgive the imperfection in the presence of such power.|This is more than a reunion.|More than a peddling of the glory days.|They've done it again - this album leaves an impression.|Good to see you my friend - hope that all is well!|Yeah you too man.|I'll be posting here more often now The site was down for a year or so, so I forgot about it because I got tired of checking to see if it were up or not.|Last Jump to page:.|Replies: 4 Last Post: , AM.|By Unchainme in forum House of Music.|Replies: 18 Last Post: , PM.|More VH reviews|Replies: 7 Last Post: , PM.|COM Archive Top.|All times are GMT |The time now is PM.|All rights reserved.
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